Research proposal on aid effectiveness
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Progressing aid effectiveness in the WASH sector
 liesbet heyse, “choosing the lesser evil: understanding decision making in humanitarian aid ngos” (hampshire, england: ashgate publishing limited, 2006), 1-4. finally, section 5 draws together the threads of earlier sections to make some concluding remarks on the effectiveness of aid to education and what has been learned. it is the responsibility of the implementing agency to carry out a complete and thorough vetting of each expatriate applicant to ensure that standards will be upheld and front line workers are stable and possess the appropriate skill set, knowledge, experience and ethical motivation to deliver cost-effective services to the host country and the aid recipients. however, educational outcomes are profoundly influenced by a range of critical and less easily measurable factors such as the nature of the curriculum, the effectiveness of teacher training, the appropriateness of learning materials, school location, school and teacher amenities, the mentoring, supervision and leadership of heads and teachers, the status and respect afforded them by the local community and its involvement in the school. but the article also indicates that there is a considerable gap between what aid does and what it could potentially achieve, especially in relation to its contribution to improvements in educational quality. amelia branczik, “humanitarian aid and development assistance,” in beyond intractability. most importantly, the approach has significant potential for improvement of humanitarian aid and the well-being of beneficiaries. when aid is reduced or withdrawn, the inability on the part of the host government to sustain the unrealistic high salaries often results in brain drain as professionals abandon the country to work in developed countries that are experiencing staff shortages. michael clemens, steven radelet, and rikhil ghavnani, “counting chickens when they hatch: the short-term effect of aid on growth”, centre for global development, working paper number 44, july 2004. in this regard, an increasing number of donors now collaborate with recipient countries to set salary scales in line with what would be earned at the same or similar jobs in-country, and to encourage building a structure that can be sustained when aid is reduced or no longer available. over this same period, total aid to basic education increased by 630 per cent, to secondary education, by 294 per cent and to post-secondary education, by 244,268 per cent3. this is because attribution is typically multifaceted: providing textbooks and speeding up textbook distribution, like the provision of anti-malarial bednets, will no doubt contribute to overall impact, but determining and especially trying to quantify its specific contribution to broader outcomes is far from easy when set alongside many other contributory factors, only some of which are aid-related. kersten jauer, “stuck in the ‘recovery gap’: the role of humanitarian aid in the central african republic,” humanitarian exchange magazine 43, humanitarian practice network, (2009): 28-30.
Is Aid Effective?
 aid workers must be skilled at rapid assessment and treatment under difficult environmental conditions at times compounded by violence and/or lack of adequate essential resources. the delivery of effective and sustainable aid within the fast-changing world continues to present ongoing challenges to stakeholder communication and collaboration, keys to delivering quality services in a cost-effective manner. deep immersion in the culture and collaboration with the host government and other stakeholders by aid workers is necessary to identify and prioritize needs and set goals that will maintain/improve health and well being. in this rather peculiar turn of events, developed countries are giving aid with one hand but robbing host countries with the other by siphoning off their most precious resource of trained professionals. an equally troubling situation is the recruitment of aid workers/volunteers with self-serving motives to experience the world, build a lucrative career or boost popularity. aid represents a commitment to support vulnerable host populations that have experienced a sudden emergency, requiring ongoing assistance to maintain or improve their quality of life. all fora focused on main principles believed to be necessary to improve aid effectiveness including ownership of strategies by the recipient country, alignment of programs through donor support, harmonization to avoid expensive duplication of programs (coordination, simplification, sharing), results through monitoring and measuring, mutual accountability of donors and recipient countries and the control of funding be managed by recipient countries, be predictable and accountable. section 4 focuses on some of the most important ‘wider issues’ that are essential to understanding the overall contribution that aid can make to education and what factors continue to impede success. to do less is tantamount to defining humanitarian aid as an insolvable problem, an attitude that is a disservice to host countries and to those stakeholders who generously contribute resources, knowledge and skills in order to improve the health and quality of life for vulnerable people worldwide. in recent years there have also been many new and different approaches in the provision of aid to education. it is this relationship that through the media largely defines aid to the public and in turn translates into generous contributions from governments and the private, public and corporate sectors. this includes what we know about bringing to scale different aid-supported programmes, and the lessons learned and challenges still facing aid donors in the critical areas of budgetary support, institutional strengthening, the political dimensions of aid-giving, the ‘transferability’ of aid-supported educational programmes, capacity development via technical co-operation, knowledge transfer, financial support and south–south dialogue. flow of funding requires a high profile public image frequently fueled by exploitation of beneficiary vulnerabilities, consequently there is a tendency to emphasize weaknesses and threats and de-emphasize strengths that is, the more serious and numerous the problems the more likely the proposal will be funded.
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Humanitarian Aid: Are Effectiveness and Sustainability Impossible moreover, a silo approach to aid, with minimal inclusion and coordination of crosscutting issues such as gender, hiv/aids, governance, environment, poverty, etc. terms that are frequently used in humanitarian aid to describe a common, united effort, partnership or harmonious purpose are cooperation, coordination, collaboration and communication, all vital to identifying and prioritizing interventions and shared visions that will result in increased beneficiary well-being and quality of life. whereas the breakdown by sub-sector of aid to education in 1995 comprised 19 per cent to basic, 12 per cent to secondary education and less than 1 per cent to post-secondary education, in 2010, this breakdown was 30 per cent for basic, 10 per cent for secondary education, and with post-secondary education attracting 40 per cent of total aid to education. in order to increase the reliability of results, a baseline study at the beginning of the intervention, surveillance throughout and statistical analysis at the end cannot be overemphasized for its contribution to overall project/program effectiveness. although governments, agencies, organizations, corporations and aid workers are running as fast as they can, in the current ballooning aid industry it is extremely difficult to keep on top of fast-moving events. international aid transparency initiative, good humanitarian donorship, humanitarian reform initiative (2005), unhcr handbook for emergencies, sphere, odi, alnp, aida, code of conduct, humanitarian accountability partnership (hap), good humanitarian donorship, international aid transparency initiative (iati), iasc. for example, a recent proposal by the british government to look beyond debt relief for developing countries or incremental increases in aid and instead to provide assistance through increasing trade and removing barriers to increase gdp will decrease dependency, free up wealth, create enterprise and save more lives than either of the other two initiatives alone. if that doesn’t make an assessment of the effectiveness of aid to education difficult enough, the challenges are compounded by the fact not only that education serves many purposes, but educational outcomes are influenced more by what goes on outside schools than within them—widening further the complexities involved in assessing the effectiveness of foreign aid to education. on the other hand, it is difficult to confirm this claim since aid agencies tend to provide information on the total program cost rather than a specific cost breakdown, even though a correlation between the cost per client versus labor costs would provide more reliable information pertaining to efficiency. the key to ensuring that successes continue and evolve lies in the understanding that humanitarian aid does not have an endpoint, but is a constantly unfolding process in which milestones mark the path paved by lessons learned. prior to funding a proposal, donors must require information that clearly outlines the project or program goal and objectives, a detailed plan of activities, needed resources and the time periods required to complete the short or long-term activities (months to years). important initiative to increase aid effectiveness has continued to evolve from its beginnings in rome as the first high level forum, followed by the paris declaration on aid effectiveness, the accra agenda for action and the fourth high level forum in south korea. bilateral is aid transferred from one country to another e.
The Role of Financial Aid in Promoting College Access and Success
have continually pointed out that it is far easier to show the impact of aid-supported health interventions than education ones: improvements in mortality rates are more visible in the short term than increased learning. this complex backdrop, most aid agencies take the ‘easy’ route in providing an account to the public at home of the results of their interventions in the education field—by focussing mostly on reporting on the ‘numbers assisted’ rather than educating the public, on whose votes they rely, and deepening public awareness of the complicated nature of development effectiveness (and only one of its constituents, aid effectiveness). purpose of this article is to review what has been learned over many decades of foreign aid to education.  however field reports that stress primarily positive achievements to the exclusion of factual information, including ongoing struggles and lack of success, are at best dishonest since achievements in humanitarian aid are hard won and frequently result in poorly-met objectives or failed strategies. furthermore, as agencies compete for the brightest and most skilled workers, salaries become increasingly inflated, as do aid budgets. clark gibson, krister andersson, elinor ostrom, and sujai shivakumar, the samaritan’s dilemma: the political economy of development aid (oxford, uk: oxford university press, 2005. however, when attempting to assess the contribution of aid to service-delivery, aid to the health sector faces quite similar challenges as does aid to education. such negative perspectives of the inexperienced aid worker frequently results in miscommunication and seriously impaired collaborative relationships that affect team function, the delivery of quality services and recipient capacity development. introductionthe simplicity of the question, ‘what do we know about what works in foreign aid to education? some early findings are that coverage of needs has improved in some areas, gaps in aid are better identified with duplications reduced, peer review has increased the ability of humanitarian actors to learn and move forward, predictable leadership has led to improved coordination, partnerships have been strengthened and the planning and quality of funding proposals has been improved. these outcomes prolong the need for donor resources- a troubling development if donor fatigue takes hold and aid is either drastically reduced or terminated.from 2006-2010 nearly a quarter (24%) of humanitarian aid contributions were private/voluntary growing from 17% (2006) to 32% (2010). the specific aims are to strengthen partnerships and ensure more predictability and accountability in aid responses through clarification of the division of labor among involved agencies (national and international) and definition of their roles and responsibilities within key sectors.
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Impact of Visual Aids in Enhancing the Learning Process Case  twenty-two countries in sub-saharan africa are leading the decline in hiv/aids and there are 200,000 fewer deaths since 2004 due to policies focused on disease prevention and health promotion. the initial task of aid workers is to establish rapports with the national government, beneficiaries and other stake holders and in collaboration assess recipient needs, construct a plan that is culturally sensitive, equitable, affordable, feasible, and satisfies the mandate of the donor, a delicate balancing act indeed. although there have been measurable gains across developing countries what has been missing is a systematic way to determine what kind of aid works best. foreign aid to education can both focus on and contribute greatly to some of these building blocks to improved learning, but drawing a direct causal connection between the foreign aid provided and learning achievements involves far more than merely counting the number of pupils enrolled in primary school and assessing progress towards universal enrolment, one of the millennium development goals. hence, the goal should be to structure aid in ways that will promote the smooth integration of these categories within a ‘living’ framework in order to enhance performance, deliver quality services and reduce costs (fig. and sustainability in humanitarian aid are not impossible dreams, and the achievement of acceptable and cost-effective outcomes in short and long terms is possible, as evidenced by successes in the past and present. general belief that aid workers just have to be enthusiastic and empathetic in order to be effective frequently results in inappropriate recruitment of staff that lack suitable knowledge, experience and skills to make a positive contribution to project/program activities. it is this kind of confident flexibility within the aid community that still needs to be further developed in order to obtain reliable results that lead to cost-effective projects/programs. sustainability is the ultimate goal of all development aid and is the ability of host country entities to continue to apply new and evolving capacities and sustain achievements through providing reliable resources generated from a country’s own efforts. charles-antoine hofmann, jeremy shohan, les roberts, and paul harvey, “measuring the impact of humanitarian aid: a review of current practice,” humanitarian policy group overseas development institute, uk. broad view of humanitarian aid that looks beyond numerous critiques reveals past and ongoing successes made possible through the generosity of many private and public donors and the collaboration of stakeholders. it shows the positive contribution that aid has made to education in aid-recipient countries, the most tangible outcome of which is the contribution that aid makes to expanding enrolments especially of basic education. although achievements in humanitarian aid amid ongoing change are impressive, there is a need on the part of donors, governments, aid workers, and the public to develop a clearer understanding pertaining to who does what, when, where and how.
Organising for donor effectiveness: an analytical framework for emergency aid concentrates on input, output and short-term outcome (relieving suffering, providing basic necessities and services, saving lives) while the r/d focus is on input, output, long-term outcome and impact to eradicate the root causes of vulnerability through ongoing research, monitoring, and analysis (fig. effectiveness of foreign aid to education: what can be learned? aid represents a commitment to support vulnerable host populations that have […]. if the instrument is the focus, then aid is reduced to a technical exercise in which beneficiaries remain peripheral to the process, results will be unreliable and resources wasted. tracking these strategies over time will reveal their effectiveness, but both are aimed at ensuring that countries will be placed in a position of strength (in terms of capacity and finances) to assume future responsibility. section 3 examines each of the more important ways aid has been provided—the different ‘aid modalities’ project aid, sector-wide approaches (swaps) including programme-based approaches (pbas) and budget support. in this regard donors must fully recognize the differences between long and short-term aid in that the former focuses on root causes of poverty, morbidity and mortality and the latter on reducing immediate suffering and saving lives. adel harmer and deepayan basu ray, “study on the relevance and applicability of the paris declaration on aid effectiveness in humanitarian aid”, humanitarian policy group, overseas development institute, london, march (2009): 7-11. disbursements for beneficiary needs and related expenses rarely seem to be enough and the belief that incremental increases in donor funding will translate into more effective aid is a hotly debated issue and based on very little research. this article does not, however, seek to provide prescriptive answers to specific problems, but instead to define a broad set of unresolved issues in the aid architecture for education. for instance, the largest multi-donor funded education programme, the global partnership for education (gpe, formerly known as the fast-track initiative or fti) claims that ‘countries receiving support from the gpe perform better in all basic education indicators than countries receiving no partnership support’ implying that ‘their’ foreign aid has ‘worked’1. nevertheless the ongoing development of lrrd is a worthwhile strategy that will increase the effectiveness of aid both now and in the future. rafael lozano, haidong wang, kyle foreman, julie knoll rajaratnam, mohsen naghavia, jake r marcus, laura dwyer-lindgren, katherine t.
Toward the Enhanced Effectiveness of Foreign Aid it goes on to provide some guidance as to how aid effectiveness could be improved to reach more sustainable, education outcomes. in sum, the declaration represents a commitment from all signatories to uphold these principles in order to increase the positive impact of cost-effective aid by assisting developing countries to formulate their own plans according to national priorities, using their own planning and implementation systems. hakan malmqvist, “development aid, humanitarian assistance, emergency relief”, ministry for foreign aid, sweden,Monograph 46, february 2000. in addition, stakeholders and host governments work together to create a realistic staged plan for reduction/withdrawal of resources that will ensure that there will be country cost-effective strategies in place for strong and continuing independence that will prevent the country from falling into an unsustainable position when aid is withdrawn. hence a first step is to promote cooperation and collaboration between stakeholders by emphasizing the service and cost effectiveness that can be gained through the use of a flexible transitional model that will enhance service and cost effectiveness for beneficiaries and donors. unintended consequence that negatively impacts effectiveness pertains to the large amount of aid that flows into developing countries and contributes to almost instantaneous growth in all sectors, causing serious inflationary and cultural disruptions. for the purpose of this paper humanitarian aid describes the universal (caring and commitment to saving lives and improving the human condition in emergency, relief, rehabilitation, development). humanism is recorded in the earliest annuls of history, organized humanitarian aid began with the rebuilding of europe post-world war ii, and has been characterized by constant evolution and attempts on the part of all players to tame a fast-moving target. however, many stakeholders believe that humanitarian aid has been unsuccessful in delivering on these promises through lack of coordination and duplication of services. in sum, aid disbursements must consider all of the above factors in deciding who receives what assistance, when and how with clearly defined short and long-term categories that point to and support institutional arrangements for distributing resources appropriately and equitably. dambisa moyo, dead aid: why aid is not working and how there is another way for africa. in turn, these skills necessitate characteristics that include experience, academic preparation, a clear understanding of the program objectives and of humanitarian aid at the micro and macro levels. hence in this rapidly-evolving field there are numerous strategies in progress, initiatives that represent hopeful beginnings toward improved, effective and sustainable aid.
The effectiveness of foreign aid to education: What can be learned? accra international aid transparency initiative, “third high level forum on aid effectiveness” (accra agenda for action, accra, ghana, september 2-4, 2008). journal of educational developmentvolume 48, may 2016, pages 23–36aid, education policy, and developmentedited by miguel niño-zarazúa. multilateral aid represents assistance from many countries that is distributed by the un to (i)ngos, private donors and implementing partners. humanitarian aid has grown exponentially over the past sixty years in the number and variety of donors and aid workers, as well as the amount of money transferred to vulnerable countries for emergency, relief, rehabilitation and development. the aid industry is still struggling not only with some past, unresolved issues but equally with many new challenges. hakan malmqvist, “development aid, humanitarian assistance, emergency relief,” ministry for foreign aid sweden, monograph 46, (2000); 2-4. hence in order to ensure cost-effective quality service, donors must not only investigate agency legitimacy before approving proposals, but also encourage a balanced approach to assessment that recognizes strength, coping and resilience as well as challenges., oxford, ukb united nations university, world institute for development economics research (unu-wider), helsinki, finlandavailable online 31 december 2015abstractthis article reviews what has been learned over many decades of foreign aid to education and discusses what works and what does not work. in this regard, a first step toward enhancing transparency and accountability of all parties is through the recruitment of a competent financial officer familiar with the country, culture and aid industry, in addition to regular independent audits. aid to education and aid impact studiesfrom 1995 to 2010 total aid to education increased in real terms by 360 per cent, from us. while poor communication risks working relationships (potential or ongoing) and impedes progress toward meeting objectives, quality communication has ongoing challenges that have to be assumed by every stakeholder individually and within a consortium in order to improve and maintain the effectiveness of aid. indeed humanitarian aid with its diverse mandates, roles, people, time lines and funding, as well as the absence of clear definitions to describe specific identities (purpose, principles), presents a chaotic and confusing image to the public, host governments and recipients, as well as ongoing challenges for agencies and aid workers. for example, east and southeast asia were substantially dependent on overseas development assistance (oda) in earlier years, but were able to achieve remarkable growth in the 1980s and 1990s, effectively terminating their dependence on aid.
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