Factors Affecting Antenatal Care Attendance: Results from

three: in dept interview of health professionals including doctors, midwives and nurses at the antenatal clinic, antenatal word and labor ward to gather the health professionals perspectives of why do pregnant women present late for their first booking at the antenatal clinic cwm hospital. is a cross sectional descriptive study where quantitative and qualitative data will be collected in the following four components:Component one: retrospective record review of the first booking register at the antenatal clinic to obtain the general characteristics and trends of women who presented for their first booking from january 2013 to december 2013. ali aa, osman mm, abbaker ao, adam i (2010) use of antenatal care services in kassala, eastern sudan. four: observation of the antenatal clinic and day to day operations to identify any factors within the health systems that may be a barrier for pregnant women to present late for their first booking at the antenatal clinic cwm hospital. l, harrison a (2003) why do women seek antenatal care late?

Factors affecting the utilization of antenatal care services among

- make recommendations to the antenatal clinic , clinical services network and minitry of health for improvement in safe mother practices. antenatal care is also viewed as an important point of contact between health workers and women and an opportunity for provision of health education – including how to detect pregnancy complications – and development of a birth plan to ensure delivery at a health facility [11]. local healthcare facilities and anc services vary amongst these settlements: urban areas are located within a 30-minute walk to the district hospital, whereas, in rural areas, women mainly access anc at the small community clinics or dispensaries, which, for some women, are up to two hours’ walk from home. Antenatal care (ANC) is a key strategy to improve maternal and infant health.. abou-zahr cl, wardlaw tm (2003) antenatal care in developing countries: promise, achievements and missed opportunity: an analysis of trends, levels and differentials, 1990–2001.

Coverage and Quality of Antenatal Care Provided at Primary Health

point of saturation approach was also applied to the total sample of healthcare workers, local opinion leaders and the relatives of pregnant women. this suggests the need for further analysis of women’s transition from pregnancy to delivery care. nisar n, amjad r (2007) pattern of antenatal care provided at a public sector hospital hyderabad sindh. a comparative approach is taken and data from four research sites (in three countries) are presented; this approach to the analysis of a similar phenomenon, anc attendance, across diverse social and cultural and healthcare contexts facilitates the identification, and prompts the interrogation, of relevant themes that might otherwise be taken for granted [25]. t, lindmark g, majoko f, ahlberg bm (2004) a qualitative study of women's perspectives of antenatal care in a rural area of zimbabwe.

Booking for Antenatal Mother at the CWMH A Situational Analysis

three: in dept interview of health professionals including doctors, midwives and nurses at the antenatal clinic, antenatal word and labor ward to gather the health professionals perspectives of why do pregnant women present late for their first booking at the antenatal clinic cwm hospital. (2001) who systematic review of randomised controlled trials of routine antenatal care. the data also suggest that a woman’s level of education plays an important social role; secondary or tertiary education enables women to approach health staff on relatively equal terms, to pose questions and, potentially, to seek care with lesser concern about any possible reprimands. healthcare staff explained that, as a result of the transition to focused anc, information was no longer provided to pregnant women during health talks. malawian and kenyan women who complained of ill health during early pregnancy would however generally not attend anc but rather seek care at a health facility, without disclosing their pregnancy to staff.

Factors associated with antenatal care adequacy in rural and urban

four: observation of the antenatal clinic and day to day operations to identify any factors within the health systems that may be a barrier for pregnant women to present late for their first booking at the antenatal clinic cwm hospital. the influence of friends and relatives on decision-making regarding anc, in terms of offering advice or supplying resources to meet the overall costs of care, messages about anc attendance would be more effective if aimed at the community as a whole. health workers involved in anc were identified at the local health facilities, whereas other healthcare providers, such as traditional birth attendants (tbas), were identified through contacts with other respondents. care (anc), along with family planning, skilled delivery care and emergency obstetric care, is a key element of the package of services aimed at improving maternal and newborn health [1], [2].- make recommendations to the antenatal clinic , clinical services network and minitry of health for improvement in safe mother practices.

From research to practice: the example of antenatal care in Thailand

Women’s timing of ANC initiation was influenced by reproductive concerns and pregnancy uncertainties, particularly during the first trimester, and how ANC services responded to this uncertainty; age, parity and the associated implications for pregnancy disclosure; interactions with healthcare workers, particularly messages about timing of ANC; and the cost of ANC, including charges levied for ANC procedures – in spite of policies of free ANC – combined with ideas about the compulsory nature of follow-up appointments. at each site, a group of pregnant women were selected as case studies and interviewed three to six times pre- and postpartum to elicit their experiences and care seeking as their pregnancy progressed. particularly as these women are often friends, acquaintances or relatives of health staff and if necessary can utilize private healthcare facilities, where they would not tolerate admonishments. indeed, interviews with health workers and observations indicated that, often as a result of shortages or infrastructure problems, not all the recommended anc procedures were carried out for every woman or at every healthcare facility. spite of the messages and reprimands that women experienced, healthcare workers’ advice was generally trusted and women claimed to follow their instructions.

Prevalence of Anemia among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal

early ante natal care are screened for anemia, sti, hiv and blood grouping. given the specific social repercussions of pregnancy at this age and the fact that this analysis did not focus specifically on this age group, further exploration of the factors influencing anc attendance and pregnancy care amongst adolescents and young women is also needed. women’s interactions with healthcare staff at anc had varying implications for anc attendance. b, teijlingen e, porter m, simkhada p (2008) factors affecting the utilization of antenatal care in developing countries: systematic review of the literature. timely anc attendance was influenced by: women’s and health staff’s uncertainties in early pregnancy; the design of anc and its capacity to deal with uncertainty around pregnancy status and the degree to which care is orientated towards women’s health concerns; the provision of clear, unambiguous recommendations about the timing of anc and messages that identify anc as a service that deals with health concerns during early pregnancy; and the perceived normality of anc initiation in early pregnancy.

Acceptability and Sustainability of the Focused Antenatal Care

three hospitals, and six healthcare centres provide anc services to the women resident in these areas, who are mainly from the chewa, manganja, sena and yao ethnic groups. is a cross sectional descriptive study where quantitative and qualitative data will be collected in the following four components:Component one: retrospective record review of the first booking register at the antenatal clinic to obtain the general characteristics and trends of women who presented for their first booking from january 2013 to december 2013.-zahr c, wardlaw t (2003) antenatal care in developing countries: promises, achievements and missed opportunities: an analysis of trends, levels and differentials, 1990–2001. developing anc to meet their needs and care preferences, combined with messages about the dangers of complacency, may also promote earlier anc amongst this group. hasan z, zia s, maracy m (2007) prenatal care service uptake by rural women in north west of pakistan.

Sample Qualitative Research Objectives

g, rooney c, villar j (2001) how effective is antenatal care in preventing maternal mortality and serious morbidity? nisar n, white f (2003) factors affecting utilization of antenatal care among reproductive age group (15–49years) in an urban squatter settlement of karachi. c, blanc ak, croft t, choi y (2007) skilled care at birth in the developing world: progress to date and strategies for expanding coverage. this meant that illness during early pregnancy prompted women to access anc in ghana, whereas women in malawi and kenya, who also usually sought care for illness during early pregnancy, tended to do so at a health facility without disclosing their pregnancy and this has potentially important implications for the delivery of pharmaceuticals that are contraindicated during pregnancy. s, hydara a, jaiteh l (2008) antenatal care in the gambia: missed opportunity for information, education and communication.

health organization (2002) who antenatal care randomized trial: manual for the implementation of the new model. zeidan za, idris am, bhairy m (2011) satisfaction among pregnant women towards antenatal care in public and private care clinics in khartoum. k, schellenberg ja, kessy f, pfeiffer c, obrist b (2011) antenatal care in practice: an exploratory study in antenatal care clinics in the kilombero valley, south-eastern tanzania. or ongoing health problems – pregnancy-related or otherwise – prompted women to seek care at a health facility in early pregnancy (the first or early second trimester).’s interactions with healthcare staff could also result in delayed anc.

two : in dept interview of mothers presenting late and very late for their first antenatal visit at the cwm hospital using semi structured questionnaires to determine mothers perspective of what are some of the reasons why they present late for their first antenatal booking at the antenatal clinic cwmh.ø p, villar j (1997) scientific basis for the content of routine antenatal care. General ideas about pregnancy care – checking the foetus’ position or monitoring its progress – motivated women to attend ANC; as did, especially in Kenya, obtaining the ANC card to avoid reprimands from health workers. jafari f, eftekhar h, fotouhi a, mohammad k, hantoushzadeh s (2010) comparison of maternal and neonatal outcomes of group versus individual prenatal care: a new experience in iran. two : in dept interview of mothers presenting late and very late for their first antenatal visit at the cwm hospital using semi structured questionnaires to determine mothers perspective of what are some of the reasons why they present late for their first antenatal booking at the antenatal clinic cwmh.

Research proposal on antenatal care

(2013) factors affecting antenatal care attendance: results from qualitative studies in ghana, kenya and malawi. maternal mortality can be greatly reduced by pregnant women presenting early for antenatal care to access all antenatal prevention and curative measures for the pregnancy. early ante natal care are screened for anemia, sti, hiv and blood grouping. care (anc) is a key strategy to improve maternal and infant health. to ensure appropriate design and effective delivery of anc, attention should be paid to the on-the-ground implementation of anc and women’s understanding of these local forms of anc at health facilities, how women deal with reproductive uncertainty and the efforts that women make to care for themselves and their pregnancies.

. ghobashi m, khandekar r (2008) satisfaction among expectant mothers with antenatal care services in the musandam region of oman. the cards, completed by health staff, contain details of anc attendance and kenyan respondents suggested that without the cards, they would encounter problems if they attended a health facility to deliver: women feared being reprimanded by healthcare staff, or refused care. do pregnant women present late for first booking at the antenatal clinic cwmh? rani m, bonusekhar, harvey s (2008) differentials in the quality of antenatal care in india. rr (2003) endangering safe motherhood in mozambique: prenatal care as pregnancy risk.

in kenya and malawi, health education was provided in groups and although during the anc visits there were opportunities for dialogue with healthcare staff, observations suggested that pregnant women rarely took advantage of this. the difficulties that some women face to access cash were highlighted by the experience of one kenyan woman who worked as a live-in carer: she reported waiting for her employer, who knew of her pregnancy, to pay her salary before initiating anc. l, harrison a (2003) why do women seek antenatal care late? (2012) compliance with focused antenatal care services: do health workers in rural burkina faso, uganda and tanzania perform all anc procedures? these reports from pregnant women conflicted with the statements of kenyan healthcare staff who said that they encouraged pregnant women to attend anc as soon as they realize that they are pregnant.
such modifications should however take into account local ideas about pregnancy care and the contexts in which their decisions take place. additional social pressures were also reported: particularly, in kenya (as in tanzania [23]), avoiding reprimands from health staff when they attended a health facility for delivery – through obtaining an anc card – was important; the insults that women feared had social implications (embarrassment and shame) but refusal of care was also a concern. do pregnant women present late for first booking at the antenatal clinic cwmh? fieldworkers (along with am and cp) carried out regular field observations in the communities and local healthcare facilities. being more accustomed to the pregnancy experience, their priority was obtaining the antenatal card and they were less concerned about monitoring the progress of the pregnancy.

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