Research proposal on body image

Body Image & the Media Research Paper Starter -

some of the difference in reactions to media images has to do with people's individual traits. this connection means that the link between media and body image is a health issue but also raises questions about the end results of consumer culture. images of men have followed the same pattern since the 1980's with male models displaying slightly less fat, much more muscled bodies. pressure about body image is not new, and even in the days before the electronic mass media expanded to its current size and speed, messages about body image were carried in magazines, books, newspapers, and — looking back even further — in paintings and drawings.: body dissatisfaction; body image; body image disturbance; objectified body consciousness; reflected appraisals; self-discrepancy theory; self-schema theory; social comparison theory; therapeutic ethos; third person effect. effect of media on body image is complex; it is not simply the equation that exposure makes people feel worse about their own bodies. for one thing, people are not affected equally by exposure to media images.

BODY IMAGE AND THE MEDIA:

sociologists theorize that the media have an investment in promoting body dissatisfaction because it supports a billion-dollar diet and self-improvement industry. thin models are a major source of this pressure; in one study women who viewed images of heavier models were less likely to judge their own bodies negatively (posavac, posavac & weigel, 2001). studies suggest that over 80% of women and girls read fashion magazines, most people watch 3 or 4 hours of television a day, and people are exposed to countless images while walking down the street, glancing through the newspaper, and browsing online. media images can contribute to the formation of the idealized image (grogan, 2008). study of body image — how people perceive their bodies and how these opinions develop — was pioneered by paul schilder in the 1920's. sociologists and psychologists have developed several theories describing how the media influences body image, including social comparison theory, self-schema theory, third-person effects and self-discrepancy theory.-discrepancy theory says that people carry an idealized image of the person they want to be; discrepancies between this ideal and their perceptions of themselves can cause them unhappiness and stress.

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Media that Objectify Women: The Influence on Individuals' Body

sociologists theorize that the media have an investment in promoting body dissatisfaction because it supports a billion-dollar diet and self-improvement industry. and thompson (2001) developed the multidimensional media influence scale (mmis) to measure media effects on body image in children. a study comparing the changing body-mass index of miss america contestants, playboy and playgirl centerfolds, and average americans and canadians since the 1960's found that especially during the 1980's and 1990’s, the female centerfolds became dangerously thin, while male models increased in size, and average people gained weight (spitzer & henderson, 1999). some react quickly and strongly to beauty images and others are resistant. children who internalized media images were most likely to feel dissatisfied with their own bodies. people who are more self-conscious, who place more importance on appearance, who are heavier, and who have symptoms of eating disorders are more swayed by these images (tiggemann, 2002). because people are exposed to countless media images, media images become the basis for some of these comparisons.

Body Image: the influence that the media has on self-objectification

Media Effects on Body Image: Examining Media Exposure in the

: body dissatisfaction; body image; body image disturbance; objectified body consciousness; reflected appraisals; self-discrepancy theory; self-schema theory; social comparison theory; therapeutic ethos; third person effect. some of the difference in reactions to media images has to do with people's individual traits. advertising revenues from the body industry contribute a great deal to media profits. dissatisfaction with one's body image can lead to many problems, ranging from depression to low self-esteem and eating disorders. through changing norms of beauty images, women are told to be thin; men are told to have little body fat and sculpted muscles (grogan, 2008; hesse-biber, 2007; soulliere & blair, 2006). because people are exposed to countless media images, media images become the basis for some of these comparisons. the term "body image" includes both how people perceive their bodies cognitively and also how they feel about their bodies.

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Research into the Representation of Gender and Body Image in the

people compare themselves to images, internalize these idealized images as the norm, and absorb the message that they should judge themselves based on their appearance. many contemporary researchers feel that this definition downplays the complexity of the field, since body image can refer to a variety of concepts from judgments about weight, size, appearance and normality, to satisfaction with these areas. thin models are a major source of this pressure; in one study women who viewed images of heavier models were less likely to judge their own bodies negatively (posavac, posavac & weigel, 2001). people who are more self-conscious, who place more importance on appearance, who are heavier, and who have symptoms of eating disorders are more swayed by these images (tiggemann, 2002). these areas capture the extent to which children are aware that the media promote thinness as an ideal, the extent to which they internalize this ideal as applying to themselves, and the extent to which they feel pressured by the media to conform to the idealized image. advertising revenues from the body industry contribute a great deal to media profits. studies of body image show that it influences many other aspects of life.

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Academic Achievement and Body Image in Undergraduate Women

psychologists have expanded this theory and suggested that people compare themselves not only to others in face-to-face interactions, but also to media images. study of body image — how people perceive their bodies and how these opinions develop — was pioneered by paul schilder in the 1920's. this connection means that the link between media and body image is a health issue but also raises questions about the end results of consumer culture. modern-day media do have a financial investment in promoting body dissatisfaction. have shown that women identify the media as the major source of the perceived social pressure to maintain a thin body image. the postwar revival of domesticity led to the media hyping heavier, ultra-feminine images such as marilyn monroe, with larger breasts and hips but small waists. ideal body presented by the media has become thinner since the 1960's, particularly for women.

HOW DO "BODY PERFECT" IDEALS IN THE MEDIA HAVE A

the postwar revival of domesticity led to the media hyping heavier, ultra-feminine images such as marilyn monroe, with larger breasts and hips but small waists. a study comparing the changing body-mass index of miss america contestants, playboy and playgirl centerfolds, and average americans and canadians since the 1960's found that especially during the 1980's and 1990’s, the female centerfolds became dangerously thin, while male models increased in size, and average people gained weight (spitzer & henderson, 1999). studies suggest that over 80% of women and girls read fashion magazines, most people watch 3 or 4 hours of television a day, and people are exposed to countless images while walking down the street, glancing through the newspaper, and browsing online. psychological theories are particularly useful in understanding how media images affect people differently:Social comparison theory was developed by leon festinger in the 1950's. the influence of media on body image is ironic, given that as people in the united states and other countries have become heavier and more out of shape, female models have become thinner and male models have become more muscled. the influence of media on body image is ironic, given that as people in the united states and other countries have become heavier and more out of shape, female models have become thinner and male models have become more muscled. this process of comparison, internalization, and acceptance leads to other effects: distortion of accurate body perception (for example, girls who are normal weight may think they are overweight), negative emotional effects, a tendency to overemphasize messages about appearance, and changes in eating and exercise habits (tiggemann, 2002).

Self-Compassion and Body Dissatisfaction in Women: A

psychological theories are particularly useful in understanding how media images affect people differently:Social comparison theory was developed by leon festinger in the 1950's. sociologists and psychologists have developed several theories describing how the media influences body image, including social comparison theory, self-schema theory, third-person effects and self-discrepancy theory. the average person is exposed to thousands of beauty images weekly, and these images reflect an unreal body image that becomes more and more removed from the reality of contemporary people, who on average weigh more and exercise less than people did decades ago. for one thing, people are not affected equally by exposure to media images. and thompson (2001) developed the multidimensional media influence scale (mmis) to measure media effects on body image in children. through changing norms of beauty images, women are told to be thin; men are told to have little body fat and sculpted muscles (grogan, 2008; hesse-biber, 2007; soulliere & blair, 2006).-discrepancy theory says that people carry an idealized image of the person they want to be; discrepancies between this ideal and their perceptions of themselves can cause them unhappiness and stress.

Body Image & the Media Research Paper Starter -

BODY IMAGE DISSATISFACTION AND SELF-ESTEEM: A

some react quickly and strongly to beauty images and others are resistant. psychologists have expanded this theory and suggested that people compare themselves not only to others in face-to-face interactions, but also to media images. interestingly enough, cusumano and thompson found that these three items vary independently; that is, it is possible to be aware of media images without internalizing them. ideal body presented by the media has become thinner since the 1960's, particularly for women. interestingly enough, cusumano and thompson found that these three items vary independently; that is, it is possible to be aware of media images without internalizing them. the term "body image" includes both how people perceive their bodies cognitively and also how they feel about their bodies. in these latter decades, models also became fitter, adding muscles and tone to the preferred image.

some people prioritize appearance in their self-schemas; these people are more likely to place more importance on media images and messages about body image. his working definition of body image was "the picture of our own body which we form in our mind, that is to say, the way in which the body appears to ourselves" (as quoted in grogan 2008, p. have shown that women identify the media as the major source of the perceived social pressure to maintain a thin body image. effect of media on body image is complex; it is not simply the equation that exposure makes people feel worse about their own bodies. studies of body image show that it influences many other aspects of life. his working definition of body image was "the picture of our own body which we form in our mind, that is to say, the way in which the body appears to ourselves" (as quoted in grogan 2008, p. this process of comparison, internalization, and acceptance leads to other effects: distortion of accurate body perception (for example, girls who are normal weight may think they are overweight), negative emotional effects, a tendency to overemphasize messages about appearance, and changes in eating and exercise habits (tiggemann, 2002).

some people prioritize appearance in their self-schemas; these people are more likely to place more importance on media images and messages about body image. media images can contribute to the formation of the idealized image (grogan, 2008). many contemporary researchers feel that this definition downplays the complexity of the field, since body image can refer to a variety of concepts from judgments about weight, size, appearance and normality, to satisfaction with these areas. modern-day media do have a financial investment in promoting body dissatisfaction. children who internalized media images were most likely to feel dissatisfied with their own bodies. in these latter decades, models also became fitter, adding muscles and tone to the preferred image. the average person is exposed to thousands of beauty images weekly, and these images reflect an unreal body image that becomes more and more removed from the reality of contemporary people, who on average weigh more and exercise less than people did decades ago.

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