Research proposal on breast feeding

Sample Research Proposals

” would be explored and that, through this, a better understanding would be obtained of the experiences of irish women of initiating breastfeeding on the labour ward, with a view to making suggestions as to how healthcare professionals on such wards could improve the chances of more women initiating breastfeeding and being able to breastfeed for longer.. stern [5], who pays lots of attention to the mother-infant relationship, “breast-feeding” is not in the index of a recent major book. all of these factors were found to be closely linked to the generation of positive experiences of breastfeeding for mothers in the labour ward setting. main research question that will be addressed in the proposed research is, “what are women’s experiences of the initiation of breastfeeding on the labour ward? does extended breast-feeding correlate with the following: 1) with a style of learning characterized a “taking in;” 2) with loquaciousness or taciturnity; and, 3) with an inclination to reverie? this mother “seduces” her daughter into “prolonged nursing,” to maintain the “mother’s oedipal attachment with the dead grandmother” (who died of breast cancer), and “to curtail any potential romantic or erotic relationship for the mother. (2011) discuss, around 10% of women on labour wards decide not to initiate breastfeeding, there being a variety of reasons for this. main aims of the proposed research are to undertake research to answer the research question that is proposed and to understand, through this, what measures might be taken to encourage a higher level of initiation of breastfeeding across women on the labour ward. is extended breast–feeding related to a delay or enhancement in the development of object love?: sherick i (2015) extended breast feeding: a proposal for further study: brief communication. (2004) conclude, then, similarly to the findings of noble (2001), decisions on infant feeding method are often made prior to or early in pregnancy, this directly affecting the experiences that women will have of initiating breastfeeding on the labour ward, this meaning that efforts to increase breastfeeding rates will have to occur at societal level. while i am strongly in favor of breast-feeding for its psychological benefits for the nursing couple, my interests are to inquire as to the possible consequences of extended breast-feeding. does extended breast-feeding result in overlapping of libidinal phases, and do drives take on a distinctive oral expression?-santos (1983) found that several factors influence the decision of a mother to initiate breastfeeding, and the experiences of initiating breastfeeding on the labour ward, including the mother’s age, with younger mothers failing to initiate breastfeeding at a much higher rate than older mothers, and the educational level of mothers, with more highly educated mothers initiating breastfeeding at a higher rate than mothers without such a high level of education. melanie klein [8] maintains that through psychoanalytic therapy one may always discover in a child who has not been breast-fed, an unfulfilled, deep longing for the breast. psychoanalysts, who observe and treat children or supervise child analysis candidates, in clinical discussions often raise question having to do with extended breast-feeding.

Breastfeeding: initiation experience in the labour ward

these reasons, according to the research undertaken by oyco-santos (1983), include the mother’s age, with younger mothers failing to initiate breastfeeding at a much higher rate than oler mothers, and the educational level of mothers, with more highly educated mothers initiating breastfeeding at a higher rate than mothers without such a high level of education. as kong and lee (2004) discuss, their results indicated that “…personal, cultural, social, and environmental factors are common influencing factors in the decision to breastfeed”. it was also found that “…older, more highly educated women, women who had or were planning to attend childbirth classes, women who were breastfed as infants, women who did not smoke and women who were giving birth to their first child were significantly more likely to initiate breastfeeding”, the study thus concluding that there are, therefore, certain demographic and social factors that influence, greatly, the decision to initiate, and to continue, breastfeeding. when prolonged or extended breast-feeding was addressed early on in psychoanalysis it was formulated that mothers did so for unconsciou reasons. (2010), showed that when they reached 4 months of age, only 6% of the children were still being breastfed, with mother’s educational level being the greatest influential factor responsible for determining whether breastfeeding was initiated and, if so, how long breastfeeding continued for (dubois and girard, 2003). the survey would, therefore, be comprehensive in terms of gathering mothers and fathers – qualitative – opinions of breastfeeding and, also, the experiences of the mothers on the labour ward with regards to the health care professionals attitudes towards breastfeeding and the help they received from the health care professionals with regards to initiating breastfeeding. a more controversial and complicated issue has been to recommend a preferred duration of breast-feeding. are there developmental consequences for other children in the household based on an extended period of breastfeeding for a newborn sib? all of these factors, then, directly affect the experiences that women will have of initiating breastfeeding on the labour ward, with some of these factors being linked to successful initiation of breastfeeding and others being linked to a lack of success in initiating breastfeeding on the labour ward. effect of antenatal peer support on breastfeeding initiation: a systematic review. While breast-feeding has always been considered of positive value for the development of infants, the significance of the duration ., it would appear from the psychoanalytic literature that while breast-feeding is considered of value for child development there generally is neglect of the issue of duration, except for melanie klein. while breast-feeding has always been considered of positive value for the development of infants, the significance of the duration of experience of breast-feeding for the mother/child couple has not been carefully explored.., breast-feeding for as long a duration as the mother and infant wish it to be. the study found, therefore, that there are many factors that affect women’s experiences of initiating breastfeeding on the labour ward: these factors including mother’s perceptions of their ability to breastfeed; mothers perceptions of their partners opinions towards breastfeeding; and mother’s perceptions of the health professionals caring for them whilst on the labour ward and the help and guidance provided by them, amongst other factors. because of maternal chastisement for biting do children who experience extended breastfeeding seem to internalize superego precursors at an early age?

  • Breastfeeding knowledge, practice, attitudes, and influencing factors

    while this is a basic question, our focus is on determinants for a mother, able to breast-feed, to choose to do so for an extended period of time. relationship between prenatal infant feeding intention and initiation and duration of breastfeeding: a cohort study. (2004), in a study based in ireland, aimed to determine, “…the initiation rate, duration and exclusiveness of breastfeeding, in women resident in the north eastern health board (nehb) region”. research also found that there were various obstacles to breastfeeding, including the father’s attitude, the quantity of milk the mother perceived they were providing and time constraints, with the researchers suggesting that all of these are issues that can be discussed with mothers, on the labour ward, in an attempt to try to encourage greater duration of breastfeeding (aurora et al. is it that psychoanalysts have paid so little attention to breastfeeding? this brief communication, i will put the issue of an extended duration of breast-feeding into the context of existing psychoanalytic literature on the subject. in an article focused on the maternal aspects of nursing, friedman [3] commented on the dearth of interest in psychoanalysis on breast-feeding.., la leche league international [2], who on their website advocate extended durations of breast-feeding, i. we have not reviewed anthropological literature on cultures where extended breast-feeding is the norm but is based on nutritional needs and not psychodynamic ones. conversely, those women who were not fully committed to breastfeeding their child were likely to have a negative or neutral experience of initiating breastfeeding on the labour ward. why do some mothers nurse for a long period of time compared to other women, able to continue, who choose to wean their infant from their breast? this, obviously, forms part of the experience of women who initiate breastfeeding on labour wards, as the research in this area looks, specifically, at the decision-making process, and the experiences, of all women who think about initiating breastfeeding on the labour ward. summary, then, the literature review has looked at several themes, including what reasons are given for not initiating breastfeeding, as a result of the experiences of initiating breastfeeding on the labour ward; what social factors affect a women’s decision to initiate breastfeeding and how these affect the experiences of initiating breastfeeding on the labour ward; and whether the hospital environment, or other interventions, can influence the mothers decision to initiate breastfeeding and what influence these factors have on the experiences of initiating breastfeeding on the labour ward. while oral sucking deprivation is equally of importance, it is not my focus in this proposal. significance of the breast in the development of object relationships is stressed by anna freud [11]: “where infants are breastfed, and the milk and breast are in fact part of the mother and not merely, as with bottle-fed babies, symbolic of her, transition from narcissism to object is easier and smoother” (p. are there developmental consequences for the infant correlated with or caused by an extended duration of breast-feeding?
  • Extended Breast Feeding: A Proposal for Further Study: Brief

    a psychoanalytic researcher can turn to the classical literature or clinical cases to generate hypothese about the topic of breast-feeding. as dubois and girard (2003) state, “when all the studied factors are considered equal for all children, being breastfed in accordance with public health recommendations, which refers to exclusive breasfeeding for at least 4 months, is mainly influenced by mothers’ age, followed by mothers’ education level”. it was found that various factors would have encouraged mothers to initiate breastfeeding and to continue breastfeeding for longer, including: 1) more information in prenatal class; 2) more information from tv, magazines, and books; and 3) family support (aurora et al. the study aimed to look at how these factors affect the experiences of mothers initiating breastfeeding on the labour ward.: sherick i (2015) extended breast feeding: a proposal for further study: brief communication. are important developmental issues, some raised above, that may or may not be related to extended breast-feeding. these factors were all found, for example, to be influential in determining mother’s experiences of initiating breastfeeding on the labour ward. organizations, such as the world health organization and the american academy of pediatrics, propose standards for exclusive breast-feeding for the first six months with continuation through age twelve months as other foods are introduced [1]. it is clear, from this research, then, that a variety of factors specific to the labour ward can affect the mothers experience of initiating breastfeeding. as oyco-santos (1983) suggested, similarly to kong and lee (2004), then, there are various reasons why the desire to breastfeed does not convert in to actually initiating breastfeeding once the child is born, via the experiences that women have whilst initiating breastfeeding on the labour ward. as forster and mclachlan (2007) discuss, all women “…should be encouraged to breastfeed soon after birth, with extra attention paid to the identification and offer of extra support for those women at higher risk of not successfully initiating and continuing breastfeeding”, yet this is often not realised in practice, especially if a woman decides not to make the choice to breastfeed and holds on to this idea very strongly. psychoanalysts, who observe and treat children or supervise child analysis candidates, in clinical discussions often raise question having to do with extended breast-feeding. influences were also found for socioeconomic status and concerns about the effect of breastfeeding on the woman’s body, with the husbands opinion on this matter having a great influence on how the woman felt about this issue (oyco-santos, 1983). freud [9] contends that while the infant’ relationship to the breast is the prototype for later object relationships, the breast per se is not really crucial. for example, it was found that mothers who had made the decision to breastfeed early in pregnancy were more likely to have a positive experience of initiating breastfeeding on the labour ward. an additional aim of the study was to identify the factors that influence the initiation and duration of breastfeeding, i.
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  • A qualitative study of the promotion of exclusive breastfeeding by

    breastfeeding initiation and birth setting practices: a review of the literature., it would appear from the psychoanalytic literature that while breast-feeding is considered of value for child development there generally is neglect of the issue of duration, except for melanie klein. it was found, for the second theme, that many social factors affect a women’s decision to initiate breastfeeding, including distinct relationships between the mothers’ education level, the annual family income, family type, the parents’ working situation and the mothers’ age group, all of which affect the experiences women have, of initiating breastfeeding on the labour ward (dubois and girard, 2003). it is clear, then, that in order to know the experiences of women regarding the initiation of breastfeeding on the labour ward, it is necessary to know what factors influenced the women’s decision to begin breastfeeding in the labour ward. the decision not to initiate breastfeeding–women’s reasons, attitudes and influencing factors–a review of the literature. these factors, therefore, acted as protective factors for initiating, and continuing with, breastfeeding. it is suggested that the questionnaire should be composed of various sections, covering the mothers – and their partners – opinions about breastfeeding prior to giving birth and also postpartum, anout their opinions of the information and advice given during their time on the labour ward and about their experiences of initiating breastfeeding and their ability to continue to breastfeed following their initiation of this on the ward. using data collected from questionnaires of 8316 women who had given birth, a substantial sample size enabling the research to be rigorous, it was found that the decision to breastfeed was associated with any plans to work after having their child with those who planned to return to work within 6 weeks postpartum being less likely to initiate breastfeeding than those women who did not plan to return to work within the first six months of their child’s life, or later (noble, 2001). do mothers who elect to extend breast-feeding prefer their nursing child to soothe themselves on mother’s body rather than autoerotically or to use a transitional object? as forster and mclachlan (2007) discuss, given the findings of the research, it is unlikely that single strategies, in isolation, will increase breastfeeding initiation as stand-alone measures. doe extended breast-feeding correlate with the evolution of intense feeling of envy in a sibling, and is it exaggerated if a newborn sib’s nursing on the breast is witnessed repeatedly? the results suggested, therefore, that health sector initiatives can only have a limited effect in influencing the decision to initiate breastfeeding, meaning that “…creative methods must be developed and employed to encourage women from lower socio-economic groups to breastfeed” (ward et al. while i am strongly in favor of breast-feeding for its psychological benefits for the nursing couple, my interests are to inquire as to the possible consequences of extended breast-feeding. does extended breast-feeding correlate with the following: 1) with a style of learning characterized a “taking in;” 2) with loquaciousness or taciturnity; and, 3) with an inclination to reverie? example: do mothers who elect to extend breast-feeding (beyond 15 months) have a history of their own where they perceived maternal neglect? based on anecdotal reports, most child development experts and mothers are in agreement that breast-feeding contribute positively to the emotional wellbeing of both mother and infant, at least when nursing goes smoothly without complications.
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Undergraduate Research Academy (URA)

Breastfeeding Intervention Design Study

(2011) explored how healthcare professionals promote breastfeeding and how new mothers relate to this whilst on the labour ward, this affecting their experiences of initiating breastfeeding in this setting. this is directly attributable, in many cases, to women’s experiences of initiating breastfedding on the labour ward, in that their experiences of this were negative and that this affected, directly, their ability to initiate breastfeeding in this setting. it is clear, from these results, then, that women’s experiences of initiating breastfeeding on the labour ward are not only influenced by demographic, personal and social factors, but, also, by the women’s experiences of healthcare professionals, the advice they give out and the attitude they have towards mothers in this setting. when prolonged or extended breast-feeding was addressed early on in psychoanalysis it was formulated that mothers did so for unconsciou reasons. hold differing views concerning the importance and optimal duration of breast-feeding. with respect to oral “spoiling,” of which prolonged nursing is an example, glover comments how oral overindulgence may be used by a mother to reduce the severity of other kinds of deprivation, such as irregular feeding. could be that the analytic gaze from both the analyst and analysand are averted from breastfeeding in order to avoid confronting a situation fraught with unconscious fantasies, memories, and provocative dyadic as well as triadic primal scenes. it was found that professionals, “…described a range of influences on maternal decisions to breastfeed or formula feed including lack of knowledge, support and help with difficulties” and it was also found that these were, “…strongly echoed in the reasons mothers gave for formula use, suggesting clear professional understanding of the challenges relating to breastfeeding” (brown et al. as such, the researchers recommended that it is important to educate mothers as to the importance of initiating breastfeeding and exclusively breastfeeding for at least six months (dubois and girard, 2003). influences were also found for socioeconomic status and concerns about the effect of breastfeeding on the woman’s body, with the husbands opinión on this matter having a great influence on how the woman felt about this issue (oyco-santos, 1983). this, directly, affected women’s experiences of initiating breastfeeding on the labour ward with women who planned to go back to work being less likely to have a positive experience of initiating breastfeeding in this setting. are there developmental consequences for the infant correlated with or caused by an extended duration of breast-feeding? work will present a proposal for research looking at the issue of irish women’s experiences of the initiation of breastfeeding on the labour ward. in an article focused on the maternal aspects of nursing, friedman [3] commented on the dearth of interest in psychoanalysis on breast-feeding. (2011) provide details of a study “…comparing healthcare professionals’ and mothers’ perceptions of factors that influence the decision to breastfeed or formula feed an infant”. according to the national perinatal reporting system present in ireland, it is known that, currently, only around 47% of irish women initiate breastfeeding and it is hoped that this research can help to improve on this figure, given the health benefits, to mother and child, of breastfeeding.

A study of the perception on exclusive breastfeeding among postnatal

it is clear, then, that the practices adopted by healthcare professionals on the labour ward have direct influence on the decisions of mothers to initiate breastfeeding, via their experiences of initiating breastfeeding, and their ability to continue to breastfeed should they meet problems with their breastfeeding. it was found that 73% of mothers intended, prior to giving birth, to breastfeed their child but that only 46% of mothers actually initiated breastfeeding once they had given birth. kong and lee (2004) undertook research across 230 first-time mothers 24-48 hours after delivery of their child, using both quantitative and qualitative methodology to determine why the mothers decided not to initiate breastfeeding for their newborn child. are important developmental issues, some raised above, that may or may not be related to extended breast-feeding. it was found, following multivariate analyses of this social data and the initation status of breastfeeding and the duration of breastfeeding, that there were distinct relationships between the mothers’ education level, the annual family income, family type, the parents’ working situation and the mothers’ age group (dubois and girard, 2003).) does note that early feeding (not restricted to breast-feeding) experiences are occasions contributing to the emerging relatednes between infant and mother, but he does not address the consequence of the duration of these experiences. example: do mothers who elect to extend breast-feeding (beyond 15 months) have a history of their own where they perceived maternal neglect?., the experiences of mothers who were initiating breastfeeding on the labour ward, with 127 mothers being surveyed during the research. as such, then, it is clear that greater training and education on the part of the staff in labour wards, with regards to these issues, would result in a greater level of initiation, and duration, of breastfeeding, through the fact that these would encourage a more positive experience of initiating breastfeeding for mothers in this setting. there is a paucity of more contemporary interest by psychoanalysts in breast-feeding and particularly in extended instances. next theme that will be looked at is whether the hospital environment, or other interventions, can influence the mothers decision to initiate breastfeeding and the mothers experience of initiating breastfeeding on the labour ward. we have not reviewed anthropological literature on cultures where extended breast-feeding is the norm but is based on nutritional needs and not psychodynamic ones.., to undertake research to answer the research question that is proposed and to understand, through this, what measures might be taken to encourage a higher level of initiation of breastfeeding across women on the labour ward., (2008) concluded that it is necessary to improve the breastfeeding friendliness of labour wards. psychoanalytic electronic publishing (pep) search from 1977-2013 on the topics of breast-feeding and on weaning showed many references, but none seemed relevant to our focus. is the breast an unsuitable venue for the regulation of oral (biting) aggressive impulses or of hostile impulses deriving from later developmental phases but seeking a discharge in an oral mode?

Sample Research Proposals

Proposal for a

a psychoanalytic researcher can turn to the classical literature or clinical cases to generate hypothese about the topic of breast-feeding. failing, therefore, to encourage any or all of these factors, which leads to negative experiences of initiating breastfeeding on the labour ward, thus means that it is likely that breastfeeding will not be initiated and, if initiated, it will not continue for long (forster and mclachlan, 2007). there is a paucity of more contemporary interest by psychoanalysts in breast-feeding and particularly in extended instances. women’s experiences of initiating breastfeeding on labour wards are, therefore, affected, directly, by women’s educational level. (2011) discuss, the world health organisation recommends that mothers should breastfeed exclusively for the first 6 months of age and then continue to do so alongside complementary foods for the first 2 years and beyond yet, despite these recommendations, the rates of initiation of breastfeeding are low and the duration of breastfeeding is suboptimal. this research topic has been chosen as it is not a well researched area and the proposed research would, therefore, address a gap in the research, this being suggested as an important and necessary piece of research that would add a great deal to the literature in this area with, also, the hope that the research findings could help to improve rates of initiation, and the duration, of breastfeeding in irish women. dubois and girard (2003) discuss how guidelines, from the world health organisation, for example, recommend that newborns should be fed exclusively with breast milk during their first 4 to 6 months of life, yet many mothers do not initiate breastfeeding and do not continue breastfeeding, if initiated, up to the recommended time period.) does note that early feeding (not restricted to breast-feeding) experiences are occasions contributing to the emerging relatednes between infant and mother, but he does not address the consequence of the duration of these experiences. while this is a basic question, our focus is on determinants for a mother, able to breast-feed, to choose to do so for an extended period of time. this was suggested as a way of improving women’s experience of initiating breastfeeding on labour wards. again, these results show that many factors influence the experiences of mothers whilst initiating breastfeeding. major factors influencing breastfeeding rates: mother’s perception of father’s aittitude and milk supply.´s experiences of initiation of breastfeeding on the labour ward. through education, it is hoped that even negative experiences of initiating breastfeeding on the labour ward can be ‘seen past’, allowing women to continue to breastfeed their child despite these negative experiences. is extended breast–feeding related to a delay or enhancement in the development of object love? does extended breast-feeding result in overlapping of libidinal phases, and do drives take on a distinctive oral expression?

Breastfeeding: initiation experience in the labour ward

Knowledge, Attitude and Practice towards Exclusive Breastfeeding

dubois and girard (2003), therefore, aimed to identify the main social determinants of initiation, duration and exclusivity of breastfeeding from birth to 4 months, at the population level. (2011) discusses the fact that breastfeeding is the biological feeding norm for human babies, yet how many women choose not to breastfeed their newborn children, preferring, instead, to feed them with artificial baby milks which have demonstrated risks. in this paper an extended duration of breast-feeding is explored with a hope that the significance of the topic will be obvious and encourage more psychoanalytic exploration. it was found, through the study, that various factors affect a mothers decision to breastfeed, and their experiences of initiating breastfeeding, including “…breastfeeding initiation within 1 hour of birth, giving only breast milk, rooming in, breastfeeding on demand, no pacifiers, fostering breastfeeding support groups”. in conclusion, then, dubois and girard (2003) highlight the fact that once the decision to breastfeed is made, which is influenced mainly by the mother’s educational level, different factors affect the duration of breastfeeding. is the breast an unsuitable venue for the regulation of oral (biting) aggressive impulses or of hostile impulses deriving from later developmental phases but seeking a discharge in an oral mode? in this paper an extended duration of breast-feeding is explored with a hope that the significance of the topic will be obvious and encourage more psychoanalytic exploration. it is expected that several common themes will be found in response to the qualitative survey, with these being used to make concrete assertions about the experience of the initiation of breastfeeding on the labour ward. the survey would, therefore, aim to include all necessary questions to be able to make a comprehensive assessment of all the possible influential factors regarding the decision to initiate breastfeeding and the ability of the mother to continue breastfeeding whilst on the labour ward. it is expected, then, that the research will be useful in terms of providing information as to what factors influence women’s decision to initiate breastfeeding and what their experiences of initiating breastfeeding, and breastfeeding, are on the chosen maternity ward. an important question is why do some women choose to breast-feed, while others choose to nurse their infant with a bottle (assuming it is a choice)?. stern [5], who pays lots of attention to the mother-infant relationship, “breast-feeding” is not in the index of a recent major book. hope that psychoanalysts and psychodynamic psychotherapist will become more mindful of the thoughts and feelings of their analysands and their families about issues having to do with choosing to breast-feed and extending its duration. do mothers who elect to extend breast-feeding prefer their nursing child to soothe themselves on mother’s body rather than autoerotically or to use a transitional object? closing the quality gap: promoting evidence-based breastfeeding care in the hospital. is it that psychoanalysts have paid so little attention to breastfeeding?

Breastfeeding knowledge, practice, attitudes, and influencing factors

-santos (1983) undertook a study looking at the reasons behind mothers decisions not to initiate breastfeeding, surveyong 82 mothers. this was because, as the literature review showed, the maternity ward setting in which a mother gives birth can have a major effect on breastfeeding initiation and so, if the researcher were to sample women from different maternity wards, the different practices across these wards could, potentially, bias the results obtained. the key terms and key words used for each search included ‘breastfeeding inititation’, ‘breastfeeding duration’ and ‘breastfeeding ireland’. main findings from the literature review, therefore, are that there are many reasons given for not initiating breastfeeding, via their negative effects on the experiences women have of initiating breastfeeding on the labour ward; that many social factors affect a women’s decision to initiate breastfeeding and their experiences of initiating breastfeeding on the labour ward; and that, yes, the hospital environment, or other interventions, can influence the mothers decision to initiate breastfeeding, given the strong influence these factors have on women’s experiences of initiating breastfeeding on the labour ward. because of maternal chastisement for biting do children who experience extended breastfeeding seem to internalize superego precursors at an early age? (2009), assessed the impact of “baby-friendly” hospital practices and other maternity-care practices experienced by mothers on breastfeeding duration. their experience of initiating breastfeeding would, in this case, be negative, not in line with their previous desires, simply as a function of the conditions they met whilst in the labour ward. organizations, such as the world health organization and the american academy of pediatrics, propose standards for exclusive breast-feeding for the first six months with continuation through age twelve months as other foods are introduced [1]. the research showed that, “…compared with the mothers who experienced all 6 “baby-friendly” practices, mothers who experienced none were approximately 13 times more likely to stop breastfeeding early” (digirolamo et al. women’s experiences of initiating breastfeeding are, therefore, affected by many factors, both internal to the mothers and external to them. this research clearly shows, therefore, that a mother’s experience of initiating breastfeeding on the labour ward is influenced by a variety of factors, including personal, social, cultural and environmental factors. it was found, therefore, that many women’s negative experiences of initiating breastfeeding on the labour ward negatively influenced their decision to breastfeed and their ability to breastfeed their newborn child. the first theme that will be addressed within the literature review is, therefore, what reasons are given for not initiating breastfeeding. a systematic review to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions to promote the initiation of breastfeeding. social determinants of initiation, duration and exclusivity of breastfeeding at the population level: the results of the longitudinal study of child development in quebec (eldeq 1998-2002). hope that psychoanalysts and psychodynamic psychotherapist will become more mindful of the thoughts and feelings of their analysands and their families about issues having to do with choosing to breast-feed and extending its duration.

according to klein, a fantasy of restoration of the breast is the basis of all later achievement. work has presented a proposal for research looking at the issue of irish women’s experiences of the initiation of breastfeeding on the labour ward. work will present a proposal for research looking at the issue of Irish women’s experiences of the initiation of breastfeeding on the labour ward. after controlling for all of these variables in a regression model, however, it was found that only a few of these factors remained significant, namely, “…having previously breastfed, completed third level education and the decision to breastfeed made early in pregnancy” (ward et al. (2001) examined whether planning to be employed postpartum has an effect on initiation of breastfeeding and the experiences of women who initiate breastfeeding on the labour ward. significance of the breast in the development of object relationships is stressed by anna freud [11]: “where infants are breastfed, and the milk and breast are in fact part of the mother and not merely, as with bottle-fed babies, symbolic of her, transition from narcissism to object is easier and smoother” (p. what the study made clear is that a variety of factors influence mother’s experiences of initiating breastfeeding on the labour ward. healthcare professionals’ and mothers’ perceptions of factors that influence decisions to breastfeed or formula feed infants: a comparative study. as such, the survey was based on a very rigorous methodology which allowed the results obtained to be reliable in terms of providing insight in to the factors that affect women’s experiences of initiating breastfeeding on maternity wards. the research was conducted on 245 mothers using a survey containing 28 simple questions, the survey aiming to assess various factors including: 1) demographics, 2) prenatal and postnatal care, 3) sources of breastfeeding information, 4) timing of decision, 5) preference, 6) type of feeding selected, 7) duration of breastfeeding, 8) factors influencing decisions to breastfeed and/or to bottle-feed, and 9) factors that would have encouraged bottle-feeding mothers to breastfeed (aurora et al. (2000) undertook research to determine the factors influencing feeding decisions, breastfeeding and/or bottle initiation rates, as well as breastfeeding duration. regards to the expected findings, it is expected that the research question, “what are women’s experiences of the initiation of breastfeeding on the labour ward? next theme that will be explored in the literature review is the issue of what social factors affect a women’s decision to initiate breastfeeding and how this influences women’s experiences of initiating breastfeeding on the labour ward. as the research showed, women’s experiences of initiating breastfeeding on a labour ward depends greatly on their own personal beliefs regarding breastfeeding and on their feelings whilst in the labour ward. freud [9] contends that while the infant’ relationship to the breast is the prototype for later object relationships, the breast per se is not really crucial. in this case, given the research question, “what are women’s experiences of the initiation of breastfeeding on the labour ward?

Extended Breast Feeding: A Proposal for Further Study: Brief

., la leche league international [2], who on their website advocate extended durations of breast-feeding, i. failing, therefore, to encourage any or all of these factors thus means that it is likely that breastfeeding will not be initiated and, if initiated, it will not continue for long, as a direct consequence of the mothers having poor experiences of initiating breastfeeding whilst on the labour ward. it was also found that various factors affect breastfeeding initiation, including “…the implementation of the baby-friendly hospital initiative ten steps to successful breastfeeding at a service level; avoidance of the use of intramuscular narcotic analgesia, particularly near the end of the first stage of labour; not separating mothers and babies after birth for routine procedures; and placing healthy newborns on their mothers’ chest/abdomen (skin-to-skin) routinely” (forster and mclachlan, 2007). this mother “seduces” her daughter into “prolonged nursing,” to maintain the “mother’s oedipal attachment with the dead grandmother” (who died of breast cancer), and “to curtail any potential romantic or erotic relationship for the mother. doe extended breast-feeding correlate with the evolution of intense feeling of envy in a sibling, and is it exaggerated if a newborn sib’s nursing on the breast is witnessed repeatedly? as a result of the findings, make suggestions as to how to encourage a higher level of initiation of breastfeeding across women on the labour ward. (2011) concluded, following this study, that “…further resources and recognition are needed for healthcare professionals working with new mothers to enable them to offer increased support, with the aim of increasing breastfeeding duration”. (1999), that these factors influence, greatly, women’s experience of initiating breastfeeding on the labour ward: all of these factors have a say in whether women will have a positive, negative or neutral experience of initiating breastfeeding in this setting. it was suggested that, without this support, breastfeeding initiation would not be increased and, concomitantly, neither would the duration of breastfeeding. it was found that maternal employment, and the need to return back to work, was the most influential reason for deciding against breastfeeding (oyco-santos, 1983). with respect to oral “spoiling,” of which prolonged nursing is an example, glover comments how oral overindulgence may be used by a mother to reduce the severity of other kinds of deprivation, such as irregular feeding. with regards to the third theme, the literature review showed that a number of practices during the intrapartum and very early postnatal period may affect breastfeeding initiation, via influencing the experiences of initiating breastfeeding on the labour ward (forster and mclachlan, 2007). we have more than 2,000 free research proposals in this free library. kong and lee (2004) discuss in their research on the factors influencing the decision to breastfeed, international studies have consistently shown a low prevalence and short duration of breastfeeding in many women, with studies having identified several factors related to this low rate of initiation and short duration of breastfeeding. this brief communication, i will put the issue of an extended duration of breast-feeding into the context of existing psychoanalytic literature on the subject. the research undertaken by forster and mclachlan (2007) found, various factors affect breastfeeding initiation, including “…the implementation of the baby-friendly hospital initiative ten steps to successful breastfeeding at a service level; avoidance of the use of intramuscular narcotic analgesia, particularly near the end of the first stage of labour; not separating mothers and babies after birth for routine procedures; and placing healthy newborns on their mothers’ chest/abdomen (skin-to-skin) routinely”.

A qualitative study of the promotion of exclusive breastfeeding by

as forster and mclachlan (2007) discuss, a number of practices during the intrapartum and very early postnatal period may affect breastfeeding initiation and the experiences of mothers during this period. hold differing views concerning the importance and optimal duration of breast-feeding.% across the 245 mothers surveyed but that by the time the child was 6 months old, only 13% of mothers were still breastfeeding (aurora et al. it is suggested that the questionnaire should be composed of various sections, covering the mothers – and their partners – opinions about breastfeeding prior to giving birth and also postpartum, anout their opinions of the information and advice given during their time on the labour ward and about their experiences of initiating breastfeeding and their ability to continue to breastfeed following their initiation of this on the ward. psychoanalytic electronic publishing (pep) search from 1977-2013 on the topics of breast-feeding and on weaning showed many references, but none seemed relevant to our focus. based on anecdotal reports, most child development experts and mothers are in agreement that breast-feeding contribute positively to the emotional wellbeing of both mother and infant, at least when nursing goes smoothly without complications. terms of how the questionnaire would be developed, there is no standard questionnaire that could be used to address the particular aims of the research suggested in this proposal, i. the survey would, therefore, aim to include all necessary questions to be able to make a comprehensive assessment of all the possible influential factors regarding the decision to initiate breastfeeding and the ability of the mother to continue breastfeeding whilst on the labour ward. was found that the mother’s knowledge and attitudes, followed by husband’s support, were identified as most important in influencing infant feeding choice, with a confessed lack of knowledge of breastfeeding, on the part of the mother, being directly related to a failure to initiate breastfeeding. it could be that a women wants to breastfeed, prior to entering the labour ward but, whilst in the labour ward, the environment is not conducive to them starting to breastfeed. could be that the analytic gaze from both the analyst and analysand are averted from breastfeeding in order to avoid confronting a situation fraught with unconscious fantasies, memories, and provocative dyadic as well as triadic primal scenes. according to klein, a fantasy of restoration of the breast is the basis of all later achievement. with regards to the first theme, the literature review clearly showed that there are many reasons that mothers give for not initiating breastfeeding, including personal, social, cultural, facilities and environmental and other factors contributing to women’s decisions to breastfeed and their experiences of initiating breastfeeding on the labour ward (kong and lee, 2004); mother’s knowledge and attitudes, followed by husband’s support and a confessed lack of knowledge of breastfeeding, on the part of the mother, being directly related to a failure to initiate breastfeeding, via a negative experience of initiating breastfeeding on the labour ward(kong and lee, 2004).% of the mothers surveyed had experienced all 6 “baby-friendly” practices, with the practices found to be initiation within 1 hour of birth, giving only breast milk, and not using pacifiers (digirolamo et al. melanie klein [8] maintains that through psychoanalytic therapy one may always discover in a child who has not been breast-fed, an unfulfilled, deep longing for the breast.. as a result of the findings, make suggestions as to how to encourage a higher level of initiation of breastfeeding across women on the labour ward.

Undergraduate dissertation research proposal

the survey would, therefore, be comprehensive in terms of gathering mothers and fathers – qualitative – opinions of breastfeeding and, also, the experiences of the mothers on the labour ward with regards to the health care professionals attitudes towards breastfeeding and the help they received from the health care professionals with regards to initiating breastfeeding. a more controversial and complicated issue has been to recommend a preferred duration of breast-feeding. survey revealed that the most common reasons bottle-feeding was chosen included: 1) mother’s perception of father’s attitude, 2) uncertainty regarding the quantity of breast milk, and 3) return to work (aurora et al. while oral sucking deprivation is equally of importance, it is not my focus in this proposal. in conclusion, then, as with the findings of other researchers, such as noble (2001), the researcher suggested that of all factors considered, past experience, of breastfeeding a previous baby, for example, and advice from close friends and relatives, were found to affect mothers’ decision positively (oyco-santos, 1983). women’s experiences of initiating breastfeeding whilst in the clinic were found to directly influence the later breastfeeding patterns found amongst the women in the sample. While breast-feeding has always been considered of positive value for the development of infants, the significance of the duration . why do some mothers nurse for a long period of time compared to other women, able to continue, who choose to wean their infant from their breast? the research found that there are various attributes that are significantly associated with initiating breastfeeding, including, “…having previously breastfed, completed third level education, decision to breastfeed made early in pregnancy, being a non-smoker, having a mother who also breastfed, belonging to higher social class and age 24 years or older” (ward et al. the infant to the room for feeding at night if not rooming in and not giving pain medications to the mother during delivery were also protective against early breastfeeding termination” (digirolamo et al. while breast-feeding has always been considered of positive value for the development of infants, the significance of the duration of experience of breast-feeding for the mother/child couple has not been carefully explored. identifying predictors of the reasons women give for choosing to breastfeed. are there developmental consequences for other children in the household based on an extended period of breastfeeding for a newborn sib?., breast-feeding for as long a duration as the mother and infant wish it to be. women who had access to these positive factors were found to be more likely to persist with breastfeeding on the labour ward despite negative experiences of initiating breastfeeding on the labour ward. an important question is why do some women choose to breast-feed, while others choose to nurse their infant with a bottle (assuming it is a choice)?

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