-santos (1983) undertook a study looking at the reasons behind mothers decisions not to initiate breastfeeding, surveyong 82 mothers. this was because, as the literature review showed, the maternity ward setting in which a mother gives birth can have a major effect on breastfeeding initiation and so, if the researcher were to sample women from different maternity wards, the different practices across these wards could, potentially, bias the results obtained. the key terms and key words used for each search included ‘breastfeeding inititation’, ‘breastfeeding duration’ and ‘breastfeeding ireland’. main findings from the literature review, therefore, are that there are many reasons given for not initiating breastfeeding, via their negative effects on the experiences women have of initiating breastfeeding on the labour ward; that many social factors affect a women’s decision to initiate breastfeeding and their experiences of initiating breastfeeding on the labour ward; and that, yes, the hospital environment, or other interventions, can influence the mothers decision to initiate breastfeeding, given the strong influence these factors have on women’s experiences of initiating breastfeeding on the labour ward. because of maternal chastisement for biting do children who experience extended breastfeeding seem to internalize superego precursors at an early age? (2009), assessed the impact of “baby-friendly” hospital practices and other maternity-care practices experienced by mothers on breastfeeding duration. their experience of initiating breastfeeding would, in this case, be negative, not in line with their previous desires, simply as a function of the conditions they met whilst in the labour ward. organizations, such as the world health organization and the american academy of pediatrics, propose standards for exclusive breast-feeding for the first six months with continuation through age twelve months as other foods are introduced . the research showed that, “…compared with the mothers who experienced all 6 “baby-friendly” practices, mothers who experienced none were approximately 13 times more likely to stop breastfeeding early” (digirolamo et al. women’s experiences of initiating breastfeeding are, therefore, affected by many factors, both internal to the mothers and external to them. this research clearly shows, therefore, that a mother’s experience of initiating breastfeeding on the labour ward is influenced by a variety of factors, including personal, social, cultural and environmental factors. it was found, therefore, that many women’s negative experiences of initiating breastfeeding on the labour ward negatively influenced their decision to breastfeed and their ability to breastfeed their newborn child. the first theme that will be addressed within the literature review is, therefore, what reasons are given for not initiating breastfeeding. a systematic review to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions to promote the initiation of breastfeeding. social determinants of initiation, duration and exclusivity of breastfeeding at the population level: the results of the longitudinal study of child development in quebec (eldeq 1998-2002). hope that psychoanalysts and psychodynamic psychotherapist will become more mindful of the thoughts and feelings of their analysands and their families about issues having to do with choosing to breast-feed and extending its duration.
according to klein, a fantasy of restoration of the breast is the basis of all later achievement. work has presented a proposal for research looking at the issue of irish women’s experiences of the initiation of breastfeeding on the labour ward. work will present a proposal for research looking at the issue of Irish women’s experiences of the initiation of breastfeeding on the labour ward. after controlling for all of these variables in a regression model, however, it was found that only a few of these factors remained significant, namely, “…having previously breastfed, completed third level education and the decision to breastfeed made early in pregnancy” (ward et al. (2001) examined whether planning to be employed postpartum has an effect on initiation of breastfeeding and the experiences of women who initiate breastfeeding on the labour ward. significance of the breast in the development of object relationships is stressed by anna freud : “where infants are breastfed, and the milk and breast are in fact part of the mother and not merely, as with bottle-fed babies, symbolic of her, transition from narcissism to object is easier and smoother” (p. what the study made clear is that a variety of factors influence mother’s experiences of initiating breastfeeding on the labour ward. healthcare professionals’ and mothers’ perceptions of factors that influence decisions to breastfeed or formula feed infants: a comparative study. as such, the survey was based on a very rigorous methodology which allowed the results obtained to be reliable in terms of providing insight in to the factors that affect women’s experiences of initiating breastfeeding on maternity wards. the research was conducted on 245 mothers using a survey containing 28 simple questions, the survey aiming to assess various factors including: 1) demographics, 2) prenatal and postnatal care, 3) sources of breastfeeding information, 4) timing of decision, 5) preference, 6) type of feeding selected, 7) duration of breastfeeding, 8) factors influencing decisions to breastfeed and/or to bottle-feed, and 9) factors that would have encouraged bottle-feeding mothers to breastfeed (aurora et al. (2000) undertook research to determine the factors influencing feeding decisions, breastfeeding and/or bottle initiation rates, as well as breastfeeding duration. regards to the expected findings, it is expected that the research question, “what are women’s experiences of the initiation of breastfeeding on the labour ward? next theme that will be explored in the literature review is the issue of what social factors affect a women’s decision to initiate breastfeeding and how this influences women’s experiences of initiating breastfeeding on the labour ward. as the research showed, women’s experiences of initiating breastfeeding on a labour ward depends greatly on their own personal beliefs regarding breastfeeding and on their feelings whilst in the labour ward. freud  contends that while the infant’ relationship to the breast is the prototype for later object relationships, the breast per se is not really crucial. in this case, given the research question, “what are women’s experiences of the initiation of breastfeeding on the labour ward?
., la leche league international , who on their website advocate extended durations of breast-feeding, i. failing, therefore, to encourage any or all of these factors thus means that it is likely that breastfeeding will not be initiated and, if initiated, it will not continue for long, as a direct consequence of the mothers having poor experiences of initiating breastfeeding whilst on the labour ward. it was also found that various factors affect breastfeeding initiation, including “…the implementation of the baby-friendly hospital initiative ten steps to successful breastfeeding at a service level; avoidance of the use of intramuscular narcotic analgesia, particularly near the end of the first stage of labour; not separating mothers and babies after birth for routine procedures; and placing healthy newborns on their mothers’ chest/abdomen (skin-to-skin) routinely” (forster and mclachlan, 2007). this mother “seduces” her daughter into “prolonged nursing,” to maintain the “mother’s oedipal attachment with the dead grandmother” (who died of breast cancer), and “to curtail any potential romantic or erotic relationship for the mother. doe extended breast-feeding correlate with the evolution of intense feeling of envy in a sibling, and is it exaggerated if a newborn sib’s nursing on the breast is witnessed repeatedly? as a result of the findings, make suggestions as to how to encourage a higher level of initiation of breastfeeding across women on the labour ward. (2011) concluded, following this study, that “…further resources and recognition are needed for healthcare professionals working with new mothers to enable them to offer increased support, with the aim of increasing breastfeeding duration”. (1999), that these factors influence, greatly, women’s experience of initiating breastfeeding on the labour ward: all of these factors have a say in whether women will have a positive, negative or neutral experience of initiating breastfeeding in this setting. it was suggested that, without this support, breastfeeding initiation would not be increased and, concomitantly, neither would the duration of breastfeeding. it was found that maternal employment, and the need to return back to work, was the most influential reason for deciding against breastfeeding (oyco-santos, 1983). with respect to oral “spoiling,” of which prolonged nursing is an example, glover comments how oral overindulgence may be used by a mother to reduce the severity of other kinds of deprivation, such as irregular feeding. with regards to the third theme, the literature review showed that a number of practices during the intrapartum and very early postnatal period may affect breastfeeding initiation, via influencing the experiences of initiating breastfeeding on the labour ward (forster and mclachlan, 2007). we have more than 2,000 free research proposals in this free library. kong and lee (2004) discuss in their research on the factors influencing the decision to breastfeed, international studies have consistently shown a low prevalence and short duration of breastfeeding in many women, with studies having identified several factors related to this low rate of initiation and short duration of breastfeeding. this brief communication, i will put the issue of an extended duration of breast-feeding into the context of existing psychoanalytic literature on the subject. the research undertaken by forster and mclachlan (2007) found, various factors affect breastfeeding initiation, including “…the implementation of the baby-friendly hospital initiative ten steps to successful breastfeeding at a service level; avoidance of the use of intramuscular narcotic analgesia, particularly near the end of the first stage of labour; not separating mothers and babies after birth for routine procedures; and placing healthy newborns on their mothers’ chest/abdomen (skin-to-skin) routinely”.
as forster and mclachlan (2007) discuss, a number of practices during the intrapartum and very early postnatal period may affect breastfeeding initiation and the experiences of mothers during this period. hold differing views concerning the importance and optimal duration of breast-feeding.% across the 245 mothers surveyed but that by the time the child was 6 months old, only 13% of mothers were still breastfeeding (aurora et al. it is suggested that the questionnaire should be composed of various sections, covering the mothers – and their partners – opinions about breastfeeding prior to giving birth and also postpartum, anout their opinions of the information and advice given during their time on the labour ward and about their experiences of initiating breastfeeding and their ability to continue to breastfeed following their initiation of this on the ward. psychoanalytic electronic publishing (pep) search from 1977-2013 on the topics of breast-feeding and on weaning showed many references, but none seemed relevant to our focus. based on anecdotal reports, most child development experts and mothers are in agreement that breast-feeding contribute positively to the emotional wellbeing of both mother and infant, at least when nursing goes smoothly without complications. terms of how the questionnaire would be developed, there is no standard questionnaire that could be used to address the particular aims of the research suggested in this proposal, i. the survey would, therefore, aim to include all necessary questions to be able to make a comprehensive assessment of all the possible influential factors regarding the decision to initiate breastfeeding and the ability of the mother to continue breastfeeding whilst on the labour ward. was found that the mother’s knowledge and attitudes, followed by husband’s support, were identified as most important in influencing infant feeding choice, with a confessed lack of knowledge of breastfeeding, on the part of the mother, being directly related to a failure to initiate breastfeeding. it could be that a women wants to breastfeed, prior to entering the labour ward but, whilst in the labour ward, the environment is not conducive to them starting to breastfeed. could be that the analytic gaze from both the analyst and analysand are averted from breastfeeding in order to avoid confronting a situation fraught with unconscious fantasies, memories, and provocative dyadic as well as triadic primal scenes. according to klein, a fantasy of restoration of the breast is the basis of all later achievement. with regards to the first theme, the literature review clearly showed that there are many reasons that mothers give for not initiating breastfeeding, including personal, social, cultural, facilities and environmental and other factors contributing to women’s decisions to breastfeed and their experiences of initiating breastfeeding on the labour ward (kong and lee, 2004); mother’s knowledge and attitudes, followed by husband’s support and a confessed lack of knowledge of breastfeeding, on the part of the mother, being directly related to a failure to initiate breastfeeding, via a negative experience of initiating breastfeeding on the labour ward(kong and lee, 2004).% of the mothers surveyed had experienced all 6 “baby-friendly” practices, with the practices found to be initiation within 1 hour of birth, giving only breast milk, and not using pacifiers (digirolamo et al. melanie klein  maintains that through psychoanalytic therapy one may always discover in a child who has not been breast-fed, an unfulfilled, deep longing for the breast.. as a result of the findings, make suggestions as to how to encourage a higher level of initiation of breastfeeding across women on the labour ward.
the survey would, therefore, be comprehensive in terms of gathering mothers and fathers – qualitative – opinions of breastfeeding and, also, the experiences of the mothers on the labour ward with regards to the health care professionals attitudes towards breastfeeding and the help they received from the health care professionals with regards to initiating breastfeeding. a more controversial and complicated issue has been to recommend a preferred duration of breast-feeding. survey revealed that the most common reasons bottle-feeding was chosen included: 1) mother’s perception of father’s attitude, 2) uncertainty regarding the quantity of breast milk, and 3) return to work (aurora et al. while oral sucking deprivation is equally of importance, it is not my focus in this proposal. in conclusion, then, as with the findings of other researchers, such as noble (2001), the researcher suggested that of all factors considered, past experience, of breastfeeding a previous baby, for example, and advice from close friends and relatives, were found to affect mothers’ decision positively (oyco-santos, 1983). women’s experiences of initiating breastfeeding whilst in the clinic were found to directly influence the later breastfeeding patterns found amongst the women in the sample. While breast-feeding has always been considered of positive value for the development of infants, the significance of the duration . why do some mothers nurse for a long period of time compared to other women, able to continue, who choose to wean their infant from their breast? the research found that there are various attributes that are significantly associated with initiating breastfeeding, including, “…having previously breastfed, completed third level education, decision to breastfeed made early in pregnancy, being a non-smoker, having a mother who also breastfed, belonging to higher social class and age 24 years or older” (ward et al. the infant to the room for feeding at night if not rooming in and not giving pain medications to the mother during delivery were also protective against early breastfeeding termination” (digirolamo et al. while breast-feeding has always been considered of positive value for the development of infants, the significance of the duration of experience of breast-feeding for the mother/child couple has not been carefully explored. identifying predictors of the reasons women give for choosing to breastfeed. are there developmental consequences for other children in the household based on an extended period of breastfeeding for a newborn sib?., breast-feeding for as long a duration as the mother and infant wish it to be. women who had access to these positive factors were found to be more likely to persist with breastfeeding on the labour ward despite negative experiences of initiating breastfeeding on the labour ward. an important question is why do some women choose to breast-feed, while others choose to nurse their infant with a bottle (assuming it is a choice)?