Research proposal on child protection

(Research Proposal) The consequences of child abuse in Nigeria: A

such evaluations should include rigorous scientific measurements, appropriate measures of child abuse and neglect, and clarification of the theoretical assumptions that shaped the home visitation efforts. the common practice of treating abused and neglected children together may reveal only a partial portrait of childhood victims' risk for later consequences. do not yet know if there are links between different forms of child maltreatment. in the area of childhood victimization has generally not examined interrelationships among problem behaviors and symptoms of dysfunction. scientific information about the incidence and prevalence of child maltreatment has significant implications for advancing knowledge in the field. priority 7: research is needed to clarify the effects of multiple forms of child victimization that often occur in the social context of child maltreatment. panel believes that congress, federal agency directors, and the research community should weigh the strengths and limitations of each approach discussed above in considering how federal leadership might best be provided in implementing a national research plan for child maltreatment. research mission of the national center on child abuse and neglect could be consolidated with the research functions of other bureaus and centers within the administration of children, youth, and families (such as head start, the children's bureau, and others) so that a research institute within acyf could develop scientific studies directly relevant to existing and proposed acyf programs. the consequences of child maltreatment may be significantly influenced by a combination of risk factors that have not been well described or understood. defined samples that use appropriate comparison groups can reveal significant information about the outcomes of specific forms of child maltreatment. federal government spent about million in fiscal year 1992 on research directly related to child maltreatment. panel believes that questions on child abuse and neglect should be included on future national surveys (the national health interview survey, the national survey of children, and the national longitudinal survey of youth) as part of an expanded data collection effort. research is needed to evaluate the stages by which children receive services following reports of maltreatment as well as to identify methods by which developmental, social, and cultural variations in abuse symptomatology are integrated into treatment goals and assessment instruments. of many social pathologies, research on child abuse and neglect should be an integral part of the programmatic activity for each of these areas. priority 15: recognizing that fiscal pressures and budgetary deficits diminish prospects for significant increases in research budgets generally, special efforts are required to find new funds for research on child abuse and neglect and to encourage research collaboration and data collection in related fields. research is also needed on these programs to identify methodological elements (such as designs that successfully engage the participation of at-risk communities) that could be incorporated into child maltreatment prevention programs. second, the panel recommends that the national center on child abuse and neglect convene a consortium of government agencies, private foundations, and research scientists to identify ways in which research on programs relevant to child maltreatment (such as substance abuse, spousal violence, child homicides, juvenile delinquency, and so forth) can be more systematically integrated into the research infrastructure for child abuse and neglect. scientific evaluations are needed to clarify the outcomes to be assessed for service delivery programs in the area of child maltreatment. in a similar manner, it is not yet known if there is a continuum involving physical punishment, emotional maltreatment, and other forms of child abuse and neglect or whether these are distinctive behaviors with separate etiologies (see recommendations 4-2 and 4-3 in chapter 4). of many social pathologies, research on child abuse and neglect should be an integral part of the programmatic activity for each of these areas. research is needed that assesses direct and indirect consequences of child maltreatment across different domains of life, such as health, cognitive and intellectual skills, and social behavior. however, such a proposal requires clarification of the research programs of other acyf components and the consideration of the sustainability of its research mission separated from programmatic activities. currently lack a clear understanding of the outcomes of specific and combined forms of child maltreatment in a variety of cultural contexts. sufficient incentive for state child welfare agencies to become equal partners in the research process while acknowledging the problems (e. panel believes that questions on child abuse and neglect should be included on future national surveys (the national health interview survey, the national survey of children, and the national longitudinal survey of youth) as part of an expanded data collection effort. research is needed to evaluate the stages by which children receive services following reports of maltreatment as well as to identify methods by which developmental, social, and cultural variations in abuse symptomatology are integrated into treatment goals and assessment instruments.., those who have been reported to authorities) must keep in mind that reporting itself is an intervention in examining the outcomes of abused and neglected children. information is needed on critical individual, social, cultural, and contextual factors that can determine the success or failure of child maltreatment interventions (see recommendation 7-1 in chapter 7). federal agencies in the past have demonstrated leadership in helping to organize and foster research and training in other fields of family systems and child development studies (for example, the national institute of child health and human development has played an important role in shaping the development of research on adolescent sexuality, pregnancy, and parenting) that provide examples of the type of institutional support that needs to be provided in developing research on child maltreatment. our country spends little on building the knowledge and resource base we need to treat and prevent incidents of child abuse and neglect, particularly in light of the enormous human, economic, and social costs associated with violence toward children. visiting programs have great potential for enhancing family functioning and parenting skills and reducing the prevalence of child maltreatment. lack of a consensus on research definitions of child maltreatment is one of the major impediments to the development of a strong research base on all aspects of child maltreatment. treatment evaluations need to incorporate a developmental perspective, including recognition of the impact of child maltreatment on children of different ages and in different contexts. research is needed that assesses direct and indirect consequences of child maltreatment across different domains of life, such as health, cognitive and intellectual skills, and social behavior. needs to recognize the centrality of the issue of child maltreatment in contributing to a wide range of social problems and family pathologies. defined samples that use appropriate comparison groups can reveal significant information about the outcomes of specific forms of child maltreatment. postdoctoral training programs designed to deepen a young scientist's interests in research on child abuse and neglect should be given preference at this time over graduate student dissertation support, although both training efforts are desirable in the long term. however, research definitions of child maltreatment are currently inconsistent, and the breadth and quality of instrumentation for child maltreatment studies are seriously incomplete. new volume provides a comprehensive, integrated, child-oriented research agenda for the nation. fragmentation in the federal research effort focused on child maltreatment requires immediate attention. of child maltreatment, ultimately leading to improved services and programs. treatment evaluations need to incorporate a developmental perspective, including recognition of the impact of child maltreatment on children of different ages and in different contexts. governmental research leadership requires:A commitment to high-quality research on child maltreatment, including the support of relevant theoretical work, instrumentation, and data collection efforts;.

(Research Proposal) The consequences of child abuse in Nigeria: A

instrumentation studies, beginning with pilot studies in a variety of public and private settings, such as medical and educational systems, are necessary to determine the nature, incidence, and prevalence of abuse and neglect experiences among children and adolescents. external fellowship training for health professionals interested in child maltreatment research is particularly important, given the broad range of roles that health professionals are expected to play in detecting, identifying, confirming, treating, and preventing child abuse and neglect. a consensus on research definitions needs to be established for each form of child abuse and neglect. in the area of childhood victimization has generally not examined interrelationships among problem behaviors and symptoms of dysfunction. in a similar manner, it is not yet known if there is a continuum involving physical punishment, emotional maltreatment, and other forms of child abuse and neglect or whether these are distinctive behaviors with separate etiologies (see recommendations 4-2 and 4-3 in chapter 4). comparative studies are needed to describe the agencies involved in the system, the types of interventions available for selected forms of maltreatment, the costs of investigating and responding to reports of child maltreatment, and the outcomes of case reports. priority 15: recognizing that fiscal pressures and budgetary deficits diminish prospects for significant increases in research budgets generally, special efforts are required to find new funds for research on child abuse and neglect and to encourage research collaboration and data collection in related fields. behaviors that have relevance for fostering positive family relationships and the protection of children (see recommendation 5-4 in chapter 5). treatment strategies need to incorporate what we have learned about consequences of child abuse and neglect. the assessment of consequences for abused and neglected children is complicated by the co-occurrence of other problems, such as poverty, unemployment, stress, alcohol and drug problems, racism, parental mental illness, and violence. effects of risk potentiating and protective factors in diverse cultural and ethnic groups have not been adequately explored in examining both the origins and consequences of child maltreatment. furthermore, congress should recognize that the level of financial support currently available for research on child maltreatment is not well understood or easily obtainable. behaviors that have relevance for fostering positive family relationships and the protection of children (see recommendation 5-4 in chapter 5). in a similar manner, it is not yet known if there is a continuum involving physical punishment, emotional maltreatment, and other forms of child abuse and neglect or whether these are distinctive behaviors with separate etiologies (see recommendations 4-2 and 4-3 in chapter 4). broad-based relationship with service providers that effectively disseminates research findings and encourages their use in clinical services, treatment efforts, preventive interventions, and child maltreatment programs and policies. sexual abuse prevention research also needs to integrate knowledge of factors that support or impede disclosure of abuse in the natural setting, including factors that influence adult recognition of sexual abuse and situations at risk for child abuse (see recommendation 5-2 in chapter 5). comparative studies are needed to describe the agencies involved in the system, the types of interventions available for selected forms of maltreatment, the costs of investigating and responding to reports of child maltreatment, and the outcomes of case reports. priority 7: research is needed to clarify the effects of multiple forms of child victimization that often occur in the social context of child maltreatment. the national center on child abuse and neglect should encourage the development of a collaborative state consortium to serve as a documentation and research support center. scientific knowledge can contribute to our understanding of the nature, scope, origins, and consequences of child maltreatment, but such knowledge cannot be developed in a haphazard manner. present, the lead federal research agency for child maltreatment studies (the national center on child abuse and neglect) does not meet all these criteria. agencies have an important role in fostering and disseminating knowledge about factors that affect the identification, treatment, and prevention of child maltreatment. the purpose of these centers should be to assemble a corps of faculty and practitioners focused on selected aspects of child abuse and neglect, including medical, psychological, social, legal, and cultural aspects of child abuse and neglect. research is needed that can identify the significant pathways by which key factors and behaviors affect child maltreatment, such as parenting styles, the use of corporal punishment, the use of violence and time-out periods in stress management and conflict resolution, and young children's relationships with strangers and abusive caretakers. the origins and consequences of child maltreatment research priority 4: research that examines the processes by which individual, family, community, and social factors interact will improve understanding of the causes of child maltreatment and should be supported. federal government spent about million in fiscal year 1992 on research directly related to child maltreatment. empirical base of knowledge that guides state programs and practices in the area of child maltreatment needs national attention and sustained organization. scientific knowledge can contribute to our understanding of the nature, scope, origins, and consequences of child maltreatment, but such knowledge cannot be developed in a haphazard manner. the short term, research efforts to describe, document, and evaluate relationships suggested by the clinical literature on the consequences of child maltreatment are necessary. its responsibilities in providing federal funds for state child maltreatment programs also create a political climate in which the expansion of the research program may be seen as a weakening of a commitment to child maltreatment services, if additional funds are not available for the full range of program activity. the proposed task force should develop a formula whereby each agency sponsoring research on social problems should be encouraged to allocate 10 percent of its funds to studies on basic and applied research studies on child maltreatment, administered through a consortium effort that would encourage the transfer of knowledge among these separate programs (see recommendations 8-9, 8-10, and 8-12 in chapter 8). improved definitions and instrumentation will facilitate the development of small- and large-scale epidemiologic investigations that can clarify important dimensions as well as etiologic agents that are keys to understanding the nature and scope of child abuse and neglect. scientific knowledge can contribute to our understanding of the nature, scope, origins, and consequences of child maltreatment, but such knowledge cannot be developed in a haphazard manner. governmental agencies and foundations that sponsor research in child maltreatment need to recognize the importance of strengthening research resources in the disciplines as well as fostering interdisciplinary collaboration that will contribute to understanding of child abuse and neglect. scientific evaluations are needed to clarify the outcomes to be assessed for service delivery programs in the area of child maltreatment. currently know very little about the ways in which empirical research findings are disseminated to such individuals as social agency officials, educators, judges, law enforcement officers, and many others who are responsible for the social welfare and protection of children. absence of appropriate instrumentation and methodology is a second serious barrier to the development of good child maltreatment research. more needs to be known about the effects of what are considered to be normal or acceptable forms of physical discipline, sexual behavior, and parenting styles within various cultural, ethnic, and residential subgroups because cultural norms can have an impact on child maltreatment. a science policy for child maltreatment research that recognizes the importance of national leadership, human resources, instrumentation, financial resources, and appropriate institutional arrangements for child maltreatment research. the data and information collected by child death fatality review teams in various localities may also serve as an important source of information for future research (see recommendations 3-1 through 3-5 in chapter 3). considerable work on instrumentation, including investigations into effective questioning strategies, the panel recommends the funding of a series of population-based epidemiologic studies of different size and scope, including children of different ages and different ethnic or cultural backgrounds, to address different child maltreatment research questions. furthermore, congress should recognize that the level of financial support currently available for research on child maltreatment is not well understood or easily obtainable. a national child abuse and neglect research information service, similar to the ''research in brief" program operated through the department of justice, would be a significant asset to the state agency personnel and service providers (see recommendation 8-11 in chapter 9).

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CHILD ABUSE IN FOSTER CARE: RISK FACTORS

studies that examine multiple forms of abuse can help compare and contrast child maltreatment outcomes with the consequences of other childhood risk factors. better knowledge about the scope of child maltreatment will also inform the selection of appropriate sites for prevention and intervention, including the use of schools, ospitals, health clinics, juvenile detention facilities, homeless shelters, and community centers. exposure to a greater number of risk factors increases the risk for violence and child abuse, then community-based prevention and intervention programs need to target multiple childhood risk factors in both the family and the school domains, as well as within the broader social context of the child (e. an understanding of the origins and consequences of child maltreatment to establish a foundation for improving the quality of future policy and program efforts to address this problem;. the use of appropriate measures in many different areas of child maltreatment is uneven. nature and scope of child maltreatment our nation's ability to diagnose, treat, and prevent child maltreatment depends greatly on the quality of the tools that are available to address the problem. treatment strategies need to incorporate what we have learned about consequences of child abuse and neglect. lead agency responsibility for research on child maltreatment could be transferred to an agency with a distinguished research record (such as the national institute of mental health, the national institute of child health and human development, or the maternal and child health bureau) that has established procedures and experience in supporting high-quality research;.., those who have been reported to authorities) must keep in mind that reporting itself is an intervention in examining the outcomes of abused and neglected children. priority 13: federal agencies concerned with child maltreatment research need to formulate a national research plan and provide leadership for child maltreatment research. we need knowledge that can:Suggested citation: "10 priorities for child maltreatment research. research is particularly important in the following areas:Evaluation studies are needed of specific program interventions, such as foster care, family preservation services, and self-help programs that examine the conditions and circumstances under which selected programs are beneficial or detrimental to the child. priority 5: research that clarifies the common and divergent pathways in the etiologies of different forms of child maltreatment for diverse populations is essential to improve the quality of future prevention and intervention efforts. however, it is not certain that another research agency would have the authority and the necessary commitment to child maltreatment research that are necessary to sustain an effective program focused explicitly on this topic. the proposed corps of research-practitioners will encourage the development of studies on selected child maltreatment issues as well as facilitate the integration of relevant research findings into agency services and programs. evaluation studies should be an essential part of all major demonstration projects in the area of child maltreatment, and funds should also be available for investigator-initiated evaluation studies of smaller program efforts. three possible approaches deserve further consideration:The research mission of the national center on child abuse and neglect could be strengthened with the necessary staff, budgetary, and program resources so that it can provide leadership in this area;. these problems may constitute stressors that affect the psychological well-being of children, families, and communities. special consideration should be given to factors that might be related to outcomes, such as characteristics of the process by which the service was provided, the circumstances under which the child was removed from the original home, characteristics of the child's original home environment and foster family, and characteristics of the child (including age at time of services provided) (see recommendations 7-3 and 7-6 in chapter 7). is particularly important at this time to uncover key pathways for child victimization that may be amenable to prevention or other forms of intervention. lead agency responsibility for research on child maltreatment could be transferred to an agency with a distinguished research record (such as the national institute of mental health, the national institute of child health and human development, or the maternal and child health bureau) that has established procedures and experience in supporting high-quality research;. thus the panel has formulated priorities for science policy and the research infrastructure that supports child maltreatment research in order to highlight key strengths and existing deficiencies that need attention. science policy for research on child maltreatment the complexity of the problem of child maltreatment requires a sustained commitment to high-quality research, national leadership, human resources, and adequate funds. however, research definitions of child maltreatment are currently inconsistent, and the breadth and quality of instrumentation for child maltreatment studies are seriously incomplete. the proposed corps of research-practitioners will encourage the development of studies on selected child maltreatment issues as well as facilitate the integration of relevant research findings into agency services and programs. clinicians and other service providers to refer potentially abusive parents and endangered children for direct assistance without requiring clear evidence of maltreatment prior to the delivery of services (see recommendations 2-2 and 2-4 in chapter 2). that provide opportunities for researchers to receive feedback from their peers on the quality of their proposals and to incorporate that feedback in revised and improved research proposals;. at present, we have limited knowledge about the range or nature of treatment and preventive services for child maltreatment or the context in which these services are available to children and their families. nature and scope of child maltreatment our nation's ability to diagnose, treat, and prevent child maltreatment depends greatly on the quality of the tools that are available to address the problem. understanding the complex nature of child maltreatment is a challenging task, one that requires a variety of methods and approaches to clarify the multiple dimensions of this phenomena. special consideration should be given to factors that might be related to outcomes, such as characteristics of the process by which the service was provided, the circumstances under which the child was removed from the original home, characteristics of the child's original home environment and foster family, and characteristics of the child (including age at time of services provided) (see recommendations 7-3 and 7-6 in chapter 7). the treatment of children with developmental disabilities, past histories of abuse, and factors associated with maintenance of treatment effects (e. evaluation studies currently rely heavily on reported incidents of child maltreatment as a measure of program effectiveness. models that integrate a variety of risk and protective factors are a promising development in research on the origins of child maltreatment, and they deserve further research attention. priority 12: the role of the media in reinforcing or questioning social norms relevant to child maltreatment needs further study. in the area of childhood victimization has generally not examined interrelationships among problem behaviors and symptoms of dysfunction. agencies have an important role in fostering and disseminating knowledge about factors that affect the identification, treatment, and prevention of child maltreatment. national leadership is also required to foster the integration of research from related fields that offer significant insights into the causes, consequences, treatment, and prevention of child maltreatment. a consensus on research definitions needs to be established for each form of child abuse and neglect. of child sexual abuse prevention should incorporate knowledge about appropriate risk factors as well as the relationship between cognitive and behavioral skills, particularly in situations involving known or trusted adults. national leadership is also required to foster the integration of research from related fields that offer significant insights into the causes, consequences, treatment, and prevention of child maltreatment. however, given the state of knowledge about what programs work, for whom they work, and whether they influence child abuse and neglect directly (via a reduction in child abuse and neglect) or indirectly (via changes in parenting skills and parental characteristics such as depression, problem solving, fertility, and employment), the panel recommends that no major home visiting programs be funded that do not include an evaluation component that incorporates appropriate social and behavioral science design, measures of child abuse and neglect, or both. priority 15: recognizing that fiscal pressures and budgetary deficits diminish prospects for significant increases in research budgets generally, special efforts are required to find new funds for research on child abuse and neglect and to encourage research collaboration and data collection in related fields.

Request for Proposals for Child Abuse and Neglect Prevention

Child protection action plan 2015-2020 - IFRC

science policy for research on child maltreatment the complexity of the problem of child maltreatment requires a sustained commitment to high-quality research, national leadership, human resources, and adequate funds. better knowledge about the scope of child maltreatment will also inform the selection of appropriate sites for prevention and intervention, including the use of schools, ospitals, health clinics, juvenile detention facilities, homeless shelters, and community centers. the purpose of these centers should be to assemble a corps of faculty and practitioners focused on selected aspects of child abuse and neglect, including medical, psychological, social, legal, and cultural aspects of child abuse and neglect. for example, being a victim of physical abuse or emotional maltreatment may increase the risk for a child to be victimized by sexual abuse (or vice versa), but the relationships among multiple forms of maltreatment are as yet unexamined. the proposed task force should develop a formula whereby each agency sponsoring research on social problems should be encouraged to allocate 10 percent of its funds to studies on basic and applied research studies on child maltreatment, administered through a consortium effort that would encourage the transfer of knowledge among these separate programs (see recommendations 8-9, 8-10, and 8-12 in chapter 8). research is particularly important in the following areas:Evaluation studies are needed of specific program interventions, such as foster care, family preservation services, and self-help programs that examine the conditions and circumstances under which selected programs are beneficial or detrimental to the child. absence of appropriate instrumentation and methodology is a second serious barrier to the development of good child maltreatment research. considerable work on instrumentation, including investigations into effective questioning strategies, the panel recommends the funding of a series of population-based epidemiologic studies of different size and scope, including children of different ages and different ethnic or cultural backgrounds, to address different child maltreatment research questions. and state agencies should develop mechanisms for interdisciplinary graduate and postgraduate training programs focused on the examination of child maltreatment issues. a research framework that provides standardized classifications and descriptions of child maltreatment investigations, adjudications, and treatment services should be developed. understanding the complex nature of child maltreatment is a challenging task, one that requires a variety of methods and approaches to clarify the multiple dimensions of this phenomena. a sufficient research budget is available to support an expanded corps of research investigators from multiple disciplines, multidisciplinary research centers should be established to foster collaboration in research on child maltreatment. this approach can reveal the real-world complexities of the outcomes of specific and general types of child maltreatment, including gender differences in vulnerability and manifestations of subsequent problem behaviors, the effects of the developmental stage, cultural environment, and belief system of the individual, and the role of protective factors and interventions in the lives of abused and neglected children that appear to lead to more positive outcomes. better knowledge about the scope of child maltreatment will also inform the selection of appropriate sites for prevention and intervention, including the use of schools, ospitals, health clinics, juvenile detention facilities, homeless shelters, and community centers. panel concludes that an agenda for child maltreatment research should address four separate objectives. priority 11: service system research on existing state data systems should be conducted to improve the quality of child maltreatment research information as well as to foster improved service interventions. although much insight has been gained over the past three decades, the field has not yet developed an integrated, organized base of knowledge or ongoing data collection efforts that can inform practice, guide the development of programs and policies relevant to child maltreatment, and shape the formation and testing of major hypotheses in this field. studies that examine multiple forms of abuse can help compare and contrast child maltreatment outcomes with the consequences of other childhood risk factors. a national child abuse and neglect research information service, similar to the ''research in brief" program operated through the department of justice, would be a significant asset to the state agency personnel and service providers (see recommendation 8-11 in chapter 9). the use of appropriate measures in many different areas of child maltreatment is uneven. at the same time, research on child maltreatment requires guidance, coordination, and leadership to organize the research base and cultivate future generations of researchers who are well trained and informed about the evolution of research questions in this field. for example, although certain outcomes in terms of family functioning and individual development can be measured effectively, measures to classify different or multiple forms of child abuse and neglect are poorly developed. in state definitions of child abuse and neglect as well as differences in verification procedures result in significant unevenness in the quality of research data on child maltreatment reports. such models will allow researchers to learn more about mechanisms that activate or protect against individual child maltreatment and to distinguish between immediate precipitating factors and long-term chronic factors associated with maltreatment. of child sexual abuse prevention should incorporate knowledge about appropriate risk factors as well as the relationship between cognitive and behavioral skills, particularly in situations involving known or trusted adults. priority 13: federal agencies concerned with child maltreatment research need to formulate a national research plan and provide leadership for child maltreatment research. second, the panel recommends that the national center on child abuse and neglect convene a consortium of government agencies, private foundations, and research scientists to identify ways in which research on programs relevant to child maltreatment (such as substance abuse, spousal violence, child homicides, juvenile delinquency, and so forth) can be more systematically integrated into the research infrastructure for child abuse and neglect. currently know very little about the ways in which empirical research findings are disseminated to such individuals as social agency officials, educators, judges, law enforcement officers, and many others who are responsible for the social welfare and protection of children. of child maltreatment, ultimately leading to improved services and programs. sexual abuse prevention research also needs to integrate knowledge of factors that support or impede disclosure of abuse in the natural setting, including factors that influence adult recognition of sexual abuse and situations at risk for child abuse (see recommendation 5-2 in chapter 5). a consensus on research definitions needs to be established for each form of child abuse and neglect. we lack data about accessibility and affordability of treatment services for abused and neglected children and their families. priority 3: epidemiologic studies on the incidence and prevalence of child abuse and neglect should be encouraged, as well as the inclusion of research questions about child maltreatment in other national surveys. following steps need to be taken to foster career development and to expand the human resources that provide the foundation for studies of child maltreatment:The interdisciplinary nature of child maltreatment research requires the development of specialized disciplinary expertise as well as opportunities for collaborative research studies. strengthening the existing research effort of the national center on child abuse and neglect has the advantage of continuing the core research activity developed within that agency and ensuring an explicit focus on child maltreatment research. creation of a corps of research-practitioners familiar with studies of child maltreatment should be an explicit goal of federal, state, and private agencies that operate programs in areas of child welfare, child protection, maternal and child health, spousal violence, and child maltreatment. congress should request that the general accounting office conduct a thorough review of all ongoing federally supported research on child abuse and neglect, identifying and categorizing research programs that are relevant to this area, even if their primary goal is in support of a different objective, such as the reduction of spousal violence, childhood injuries, and infant mortality. science policy for research on child maltreatment the complexity of the problem of child maltreatment requires a sustained commitment to high-quality research, national leadership, human resources, and adequate funds. although the inclusion of questions on child maltreatment may raise issues of cost and administrative burdens, past surveys and secondary analyses of existing data sets represent important research opportunities that could provide further insights into the nature and frequency of child abuse and neglect. a science policy for child maltreatment research that recognizes the importance of national leadership, human resources, instrumentation, financial resources, and appropriate institutional arrangements for child maltreatment research. state data-processing systems so that uniform individual-level data are available and unduplicated counts of children affected by abuse and neglect are easily obtainable;. second, the panel recommends that the national center on child abuse and neglect convene a consortium of government agencies, private foundations, and research scientists to identify ways in which research on programs relevant to child maltreatment (such as substance abuse, spousal violence, child homicides, juvenile delinquency, and so forth) can be more systematically integrated into the research infrastructure for child abuse and neglect. tragedy of child abuse and neglect is in the forefront of public attention.

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10 PRIORITIES FOR CHILD MALTREATMENT RESEARCH

the data and information collected by child death fatality review teams in various localities may also serve as an important source of information for future research (see recommendations 3-1 through 3-5 in chapter 3). priority 11: service system research on existing state data systems should be conducted to improve the quality of child maltreatment research information as well as to foster improved service interventions. a sufficient research budget is available to support an expanded corps of research investigators from multiple disciplines, multidisciplinary research centers should be established to foster collaboration in research on child maltreatment. of many social pathologies, research on child abuse and neglect should be an integral part of the programmatic activity for each of these areas. have very poor information about the methods and mechanisms used to identify and confirm cases of child maltreatment, to evaluate the severity of child and family dysfunction, to assess personal and social resources, family strengths, and extrafamilial influences, and to match clients to appropriate treatments based on these formulations. the nature and scope of child maltreatment, guided by well-developed research definitions and instrumentation;. governmental research leadership requires:A commitment to high-quality research on child maltreatment, including the support of relevant theoretical work, instrumentation, and data collection efforts;. researchers in child maltreatment projects increasingly need to cross disciplinary boundaries, in terms of theories, instrumentation, and constructs, and to integrate relevant literature from multiple disciplines. fragmentation in the federal research effort focused on child maltreatment requires immediate attention. national leadership is necessary to develop a long-term plan that would implement the child maltreatment research priorities identified by the panel. and state agencies should develop mechanisms for interdisciplinary graduate and postgraduate training programs focused on the examination of child maltreatment issues. for example, abuse rates and recidivism rates in jurisdictions making heavy use of criminal sanctions and child removal might be compared with matched jurisdictions that rarely use these approaches. that provide opportunities for researchers to receive feedback from their peers on the quality of their proposals and to incorporate that feedback in revised and improved research proposals;. for example, being a victim of physical abuse or emotional maltreatment may increase the risk for a child to be victimized by sexual abuse (or vice versa), but the relationships among multiple forms of maltreatment are as yet unexamined. evaluation studies currently rely heavily on reported incidents of child maltreatment as a measure of program effectiveness. new volume provides a comprehensive, integrated, child-oriented research agenda for the nation. for example, abuse rates and recidivism rates in jurisdictions making heavy use of criminal sanctions and child removal might be compared with matched jurisdictions that rarely use these approaches. following steps need to be taken to foster career development and to expand the human resources that provide the foundation for studies of child maltreatment:The interdisciplinary nature of child maltreatment research requires the development of specialized disciplinary expertise as well as opportunities for collaborative research studies. the behaviors, characteristics, and experiences of the child and the caretaker and the quality of the caretaking environment need to be assessed by research instruments rather than relying solely on administrative reports. we lack data about accessibility and affordability of treatment services for abused and neglected children and their families. priority 14: governmental leadership is needed to sustain and improve the capabilities of the available pool of researchers who can contribute to studies of child maltreatment. state data-processing systems so that uniform individual-level data are available and unduplicated counts of children affected by abuse and neglect are easily obtainable;. this proposal has the advantage of placing child maltreatment research within an agency that has a record of scientific achievement and experienced research staff. federal agencies in the past have demonstrated leadership in helping to organize and foster research and training in other fields of family systems and child development studies (for example, the national institute of child health and human development has played an important role in shaping the development of research on adolescent sexuality, pregnancy, and parenting) that provide examples of the type of institutional support that needs to be provided in developing research on child maltreatment. research is needed to evaluate the stages by which children receive services following reports of maltreatment as well as to identify methods by which developmental, social, and cultural variations in abuse symptomatology are integrated into treatment goals and assessment instruments. currently know very little about the ways in which empirical research findings are disseminated to such individuals as social agency officials, educators, judges, law enforcement officers, and many others who are responsible for the social welfare and protection of children. the behaviors, characteristics, and experiences of the child and the caretaker and the quality of the caretaking environment need to be assessed by research instruments rather than relying solely on administrative reports. in the existing research program could be addressed by designating a research agency, such as the the national institute of mental health, the national institute of child health and human development, or maternal and child health, as the lead agency for child maltreatment research. thus the panel has formulated priorities for science policy and the research infrastructure that supports child maltreatment research in order to highlight key strengths and existing deficiencies that need attention. new volume provides a comprehensive, integrated, child-oriented research agenda for the nation. scientific information about the incidence and prevalence of child maltreatment has significant implications for advancing knowledge in the field. the common practice of treating abused and neglected children together may reveal only a partial portrait of childhood victims' risk for later consequences. should be conducted on the detection processes that lead to the definition of cases identified in child protective services records and other social agencies that handle child maltreatment. such evaluations should identify the outcomes to be assessed, clarify the instrumentation and measures that can provide effective indicators of child and family well-being or dysfunction, develop the criteria that should be considered in evaluating the effectiveness of a specific program or service, and use appropriate control groups. the nature and scope of child maltreatment, guided by well-developed research definitions and instrumentation;. postdoctoral training programs designed to deepen a young scientist's interests in research on child abuse and neglect should be given preference at this time over graduate student dissertation support, although both training efforts are desirable in the long term. priority 11: service system research on existing state data systems should be conducted to improve the quality of child maltreatment research information as well as to foster improved service interventions. improved definitions and instrumentation will facilitate the development of small- and large-scale epidemiologic investigations that can clarify important dimensions as well as etiologic agents that are keys to understanding the nature and scope of child abuse and neglect. volume will be useful to organizations involved in research, social service agencies, child advocacy groups, and researchers. information is needed on critical individual, social, cultural, and contextual factors that can determine the success or failure of child maltreatment interventions (see recommendation 7-1 in chapter 7). lead agency responsibility for research on child maltreatment could be transferred to an agency with a distinguished research record (such as the national institute of mental health, the national institute of child health and human development, or the maternal and child health bureau) that has established procedures and experience in supporting high-quality research;. however, given the state of knowledge about what programs work, for whom they work, and whether they influence child abuse and neglect directly (via a reduction in child abuse and neglect) or indirectly (via changes in parenting skills and parental characteristics such as depression, problem solving, fertility, and employment), the panel recommends that no major home visiting programs be funded that do not include an evaluation component that incorporates appropriate social and behavioral science design, measures of child abuse and neglect, or both. priority 5: research that clarifies the common and divergent pathways in the etiologies of different forms of child maltreatment for diverse populations is essential to improve the quality of future prevention and intervention efforts.

Seattle public schools homework policy

DCF Research Review Committee Protocol Part I: Overview of

volume will be useful to organizations involved in research, social service agencies, child advocacy groups, and researchers. of treatments for specific forms of child maltreatment are needed to identify criteria that promote recovery and to identify treat-. such evaluations should include rigorous scientific measurements, appropriate measures of child abuse and neglect, and clarification of the theoretical assumptions that shaped the home visitation efforts. is particularly important at this time to uncover key pathways for child victimization that may be amenable to prevention or other forms of intervention. in the existing research program could be addressed by designating a research agency, such as the the national institute of mental health, the national institute of child health and human development, or maternal and child health, as the lead agency for child maltreatment research. lack of a consensus on research definitions of child maltreatment is one of the major impediments to the development of a strong research base on all aspects of child maltreatment. present, the lead federal research agency for child maltreatment studies (the national center on child abuse and neglect) does not meet all these criteria. lack of a consensus on research definitions of child maltreatment is one of the major impediments to the development of a strong research base on all aspects of child maltreatment. priorities for child maltreatment research despite the magnitude and significance of the problem of child maltreatment, research in this area is still in an early stage of development. comparative studies are needed to describe the agencies involved in the system, the types of interventions available for selected forms of maltreatment, the costs of investigating and responding to reports of child maltreatment, and the outcomes of case reports. priority 10: research on the operation of the existing child protection and child welfare systems is urgently needed. administrative process that ensures that research proposals will be evaluated on the basis of the quality of the work proposed rather than the political or programmatic relationships of the research investigators;. cultural and ethnic diversity of the corps of research investigators concerned with child maltreatment studies is not broad enough to explore the importance of culture and ethnicity in theories, instrumentation, and other aspects of research on child abuse and neglect. research is also needed to determine the degrees to which criminal sanctions deter child abuse and the degree to which removal of offenders or children from the home protects the child from abuse. needs to recognize the centrality of the issue of child maltreatment in contributing to a wide range of social problems and family pathologies. research is needed that can identify the significant pathways by which key factors and behaviors affect child maltreatment, such as parenting styles, the use of corporal punishment, the use of violence and time-out periods in stress management and conflict resolution, and young children's relationships with strangers and abusive caretakers. however, it is not certain that another research agency would have the authority and the necessary commitment to child maltreatment research that are necessary to sustain an effective program focused explicitly on this topic. administrative process that ensures that research proposals will be evaluated on the basis of the quality of the work proposed rather than the political or programmatic relationships of the research investigators;. priority 7: research is needed to clarify the effects of multiple forms of child victimization that often occur in the social context of child maltreatment. absence of appropriate instrumentation and methodology is a second serious barrier to the development of good child maltreatment research. in state definitions of child abuse and neglect as well as differences in verification procedures result in significant unevenness in the quality of research data on child maltreatment reports. the treatment of children with developmental disabilities, past histories of abuse, and factors associated with maintenance of treatment effects (e. of treatments for specific forms of child maltreatment are needed to identify criteria that promote recovery and to identify treat-. tragedy of child abuse and neglect is in the forefront of public attention. although much insight has been gained over the past three decades, the field has not yet developed an integrated, organized base of knowledge or ongoing data collection efforts that can inform practice, guide the development of programs and policies relevant to child maltreatment, and shape the formation and testing of major hypotheses in this field. these problems may constitute stressors that affect the psychological well-being of children, families, and communities. such evaluations should include rigorous scientific measurements, appropriate measures of child abuse and neglect, and clarification of the theoretical assumptions that shaped the home visitation efforts. special consideration should be given to factors that might be related to outcomes, such as characteristics of the process by which the service was provided, the circumstances under which the child was removed from the original home, characteristics of the child's original home environment and foster family, and characteristics of the child (including age at time of services provided) (see recommendations 7-3 and 7-6 in chapter 7). empirical information about the strengths and limitations of existing interventions in preventing and treating child maltreatment to guide the development of new and more effective interventions; and., empirical analyses of research protocols and institutional research board reviews of proposed research projects on child maltreatment should be conducted to determine factors that influence approval and disapproval decisions, the use of waivers and certificates of confidentiality, and other factors that affect the manner in which research investigators address ethical and legal issues in the course of their research (see recommendations 9-1 through 9-4 in chapter 9). this approach can reveal the real-world complexities of the outcomes of specific and general types of child maltreatment, including gender differences in vulnerability and manifestations of subsequent problem behaviors, the effects of the developmental stage, cultural environment, and belief system of the individual, and the role of protective factors and interventions in the lives of abused and neglected children that appear to lead to more positive outcomes. studies that examine multiple forms of abuse can help compare and contrast child maltreatment outcomes with the consequences of other childhood risk factors. directory of active research investigators, identifying key fields of research interests, should be developed in collaboration between professional societies and child advocacy organizations whose members have research experience on child abuse and neglect. special efforts are needed at this time to train child maltreatment researchers in the importance of ethnic and cultural factors in this field. a sufficient research budget is available to support an expanded corps of research investigators from multiple disciplines, multidisciplinary research centers should be established to foster collaboration in research on child maltreatment. priority 16: research is needed to identify organizational innovations that can improve the process by which child maltreatment research findings are disseminated to practitioners and policy makers. research mission of the national center on child abuse and neglect could be consolidated with the research functions of other bureaus and centers within the administration of children, youth, and families (such as head start, the children's bureau, and others) so that a research institute within acyf could develop scientific studies directly relevant to existing and proposed acyf programs. the short term, research efforts to describe, document, and evaluate relationships suggested by the clinical literature on the consequences of child maltreatment are necessary. more needs to be known about the effects of what are considered to be normal or acceptable forms of physical discipline, sexual behavior, and parenting styles within various cultural, ethnic, and residential subgroups because cultural norms can have an impact on child maltreatment. as a first step, the panel recommends that the relevant budgets for child maltreatment research of the national center on child abuse and neglect, the national institute of mental health, the national institute of child health and human development, the centers for disease control and prevention, and the department of justice be doubled over the next three years. research on service interventions must also seek to identify factors and mechanisms that facilitate, or impede, the exchange of knowledge between researchers who study the origins, nature, scope, and outcomes of child maltreatment and those who develop and implement policies and programs for child and family services in the public sector. special efforts are needed at this time to train child maltreatment researchers in the importance of ethnic and cultural factors in this field. evaluation studies should be an essential part of all major demonstration projects in the area of child maltreatment, and funds should also be available for investigator-initiated evaluation studies of smaller program efforts.

NIH Guide: RESEARCH ON CHILD NEGLECT

governmental agencies and foundations that sponsor research in child maltreatment need to recognize the importance of strengthening research resources in the disciplines as well as fostering interdisciplinary collaboration that will contribute to understanding of child abuse and neglect. creation of a corps of research-practitioners familiar with studies of child maltreatment should be an explicit goal of federal, state, and private agencies that operate programs in areas of child welfare, child protection, maternal and child health, spousal violence, and child maltreatment. panel concludes that an agenda for child maltreatment research should address four separate objectives. improved definitions and instrumentation will facilitate the development of small- and large-scale epidemiologic investigations that can clarify important dimensions as well as etiologic agents that are keys to understanding the nature and scope of child abuse and neglect. priorities for child maltreatment research despite the magnitude and significance of the problem of child maltreatment, research in this area is still in an early stage of development. national leadership is necessary to develop a long-term plan that would implement the child maltreatment research priorities identified by the panel. of data sharing, privacy, confidentiality, and autonomy in the field of child maltreatment research need further development, especially in prospective studies of maltreating and nonmaltreating families. researchers in child maltreatment projects increasingly need to cross disciplinary boundaries, in terms of theories, instrumentation, and constructs, and to integrate relevant literature from multiple disciplines. do not yet know if there are links between different forms of child maltreatment. tragedy of child abuse and neglect is in the forefront of public attention. in the existing research program could be addressed by designating a research agency, such as the the national institute of mental health, the national institute of child health and human development, or maternal and child health, as the lead agency for child maltreatment research. its responsibilities in providing federal funds for state child maltreatment programs also create a political climate in which the expansion of the research program may be seen as a weakening of a commitment to child maltreatment services, if additional funds are not available for the full range of program activity. the national center on child abuse and neglect should encourage the development of a collaborative state consortium to serve as a documentation and research support center. strengthening the existing research effort of the national center on child abuse and neglect has the advantage of continuing the core research activity developed within that agency and ensuring an explicit focus on child maltreatment research. although much insight has been gained over the past three decades, the field has not yet developed an integrated, organized base of knowledge or ongoing data collection efforts that can inform practice, guide the development of programs and policies relevant to child maltreatment, and shape the formation and testing of major hypotheses in this field. however, such a proposal requires clarification of the research programs of other acyf components and the consideration of the sustainability of its research mission separated from programmatic activities. congress should request that the general accounting office conduct a thorough review of all ongoing federally supported research on child abuse and neglect, identifying and categorizing research programs that are relevant to this area, even if their primary goal is in support of a different objective, such as the reduction of spousal violence, childhood injuries, and infant mortality. thus the panel has formulated priorities for science policy and the research infrastructure that supports child maltreatment research in order to highlight key strengths and existing deficiencies that need attention. defined samples that use appropriate comparison groups can reveal significant information about the outcomes of specific forms of child maltreatment. scientific evaluations are needed to clarify the outcomes to be assessed for service delivery programs in the area of child maltreatment. understanding the complex nature of child maltreatment is a challenging task, one that requires a variety of methods and approaches to clarify the multiple dimensions of this phenomena. tragedy of child abuse and neglect is in the forefront of public attention. of data sharing, privacy, confidentiality, and autonomy in the field of child maltreatment research need further development, especially in prospective studies of maltreating and nonmaltreating families. the proposed task force should develop a formula whereby each agency sponsoring research on social problems should be encouraged to allocate 10 percent of its funds to studies on basic and applied research studies on child maltreatment, administered through a consortium effort that would encourage the transfer of knowledge among these separate programs (see recommendations 8-9, 8-10, and 8-12 in chapter 8). modalities that are appropriate for children and offenders depending on their sex, age, social class, spoken language or culture, and type of abuse. research is particularly important in the following areas:Evaluation studies are needed of specific program interventions, such as foster care, family preservation services, and self-help programs that examine the conditions and circumstances under which selected programs are beneficial or detrimental to the child. effects of risk potentiating and protective factors in diverse cultural and ethnic groups have not been adequately explored in examining both the origins and consequences of child maltreatment. volume will be useful to organizations involved in research, social service agencies, child advocacy groups, and researchers.., those who have been reported to authorities) must keep in mind that reporting itself is an intervention in examining the outcomes of abused and neglected children. the short term, research efforts to describe, document, and evaluate relationships suggested by the clinical literature on the consequences of child maltreatment are necessary. as a first step, the panel recommends that the relevant budgets for child maltreatment research of the national center on child abuse and neglect, the national institute of mental health, the national institute of child health and human development, the centers for disease control and prevention, and the department of justice be doubled over the next three years. priority 3: epidemiologic studies on the incidence and prevalence of child abuse and neglect should be encouraged, as well as the inclusion of research questions about child maltreatment in other national surveys. priority 2: reliable and valid clinical-diagnostic and research instruments for the measurement of child maltreatment are needed to operationalize the definitions discussed under research priority 1. external fellowship training for health professionals interested in child maltreatment research is particularly important, given the broad range of roles that health professionals are expected to play in detecting, identifying, confirming, treating, and preventing child abuse and neglect. this proposal has the advantage of placing child maltreatment research within an agency that has a record of scientific achievement and experienced research staff. priority 10: research on the operation of the existing child protection and child welfare systems is urgently needed. although the inclusion of questions on child maltreatment may raise issues of cost and administrative burdens, past surveys and secondary analyses of existing data sets represent important research opportunities that could provide further insights into the nature and frequency of child abuse and neglect. federal agencies in the past have demonstrated leadership in helping to organize and foster research and training in other fields of family systems and child development studies (for example, the national institute of child health and human development has played an important role in shaping the development of research on adolescent sexuality, pregnancy, and parenting) that provide examples of the type of institutional support that needs to be provided in developing research on child maltreatment. such research can also contribute to effective partnerships among scientists, practitioners, clinicians, and governmental officials to encourage the use of sound research results in formulating policies, programs, and services that affect the lives of thousands of children and their families. however, given the state of knowledge about what programs work, for whom they work, and whether they influence child abuse and neglect directly (via a reduction in child abuse and neglect) or indirectly (via changes in parenting skills and parental characteristics such as depression, problem solving, fertility, and employment), the panel recommends that no major home visiting programs be funded that do not include an evaluation component that incorporates appropriate social and behavioral science design, measures of child abuse and neglect, or both. panel believes that congress, federal agency directors, and the research community should weigh the strengths and limitations of each approach discussed above in considering how federal leadership might best be provided in implementing a national research plan for child maltreatment. behaviors that have relevance for fostering positive family relationships and the protection of children (see recommendation 5-4 in chapter 5). currently lack a clear understanding of the outcomes of specific and combined forms of child maltreatment in a variety of cultural contexts.

Clarifying the outcomes of family involvement interventions: An

agencies have an important role in fostering and disseminating knowledge about factors that affect the identification, treatment, and prevention of child maltreatment. we need knowledge that can:Suggested citation: "10 priorities for child maltreatment research. at present, we have limited knowledge about the range or nature of treatment and preventive services for child maltreatment or the context in which these services are available to children and their families. knowing more about the nature and scope of child maltreatment in the general population will also provide insights into the extent to which health professionals, social services staff, educators, law enforcement personnel, and others should be trained in this area. models that integrate a variety of risk and protective factors are a promising development in research on the origins of child maltreatment, and they deserve further research attention. for example, being a victim of physical abuse or emotional maltreatment may increase the risk for a child to be victimized by sexual abuse (or vice versa), but the relationships among multiple forms of maltreatment are as yet unexamined. priority 13: federal agencies concerned with child maltreatment research need to formulate a national research plan and provide leadership for child maltreatment research. special efforts are needed at this time to train child maltreatment researchers in the importance of ethnic and cultural factors in this field. national leadership is also required to foster the integration of research from related fields that offer significant insights into the causes, consequences, treatment, and prevention of child maltreatment. exposure to a greater number of risk factors increases the risk for violence and child abuse, then community-based prevention and intervention programs need to target multiple childhood risk factors in both the family and the school domains, as well as within the broader social context of the child (e., empirical analyses of research protocols and institutional research board reviews of proposed research projects on child maltreatment should be conducted to determine factors that influence approval and disapproval decisions, the use of waivers and certificates of confidentiality, and other factors that affect the manner in which research investigators address ethical and legal issues in the course of their research (see recommendations 9-1 through 9-4 in chapter 9). directory of active research investigators, identifying key fields of research interests, should be developed in collaboration between professional societies and child advocacy organizations whose members have research experience on child abuse and neglect. the purpose of these centers should be to assemble a corps of faculty and practitioners focused on selected aspects of child abuse and neglect, including medical, psychological, social, legal, and cultural aspects of child abuse and neglect. panel believes that congress, federal agency directors, and the research community should weigh the strengths and limitations of each approach discussed above in considering how federal leadership might best be provided in implementing a national research plan for child maltreatment. the presence or absence of certain characteristics and events in the child's environment may influence a child's response to maltreatment experiences; in some cases the combined effects of two stressors (such as family environment and poor caretaking) may be greater than the sum of the two considered separately. research is needed that assesses direct and indirect consequences of child maltreatment across different domains of life, such as health, cognitive and intellectual skills, and social behavior. volume will be useful to organizations involved in research, social service agencies, child advocacy groups, and researchers. the assessment of consequences for abused and neglected children is complicated by the co-occurrence of other problems, such as poverty, unemployment, stress, alcohol and drug problems, racism, parental mental illness, and violence. models that integrate a variety of risk and protective factors are a promising development in research on the origins of child maltreatment, and they deserve further research attention. such models will allow researchers to learn more about mechanisms that activate or protect against individual child maltreatment and to distinguish between immediate precipitating factors and long-term chronic factors associated with maltreatment. information is needed on critical individual, social, cultural, and contextual factors that can determine the success or failure of child maltreatment interventions (see recommendation 7-1 in chapter 7). congress should request that the general accounting office conduct a thorough review of all ongoing federally supported research on child abuse and neglect, identifying and categorizing research programs that are relevant to this area, even if their primary goal is in support of a different objective, such as the reduction of spousal violence, childhood injuries, and infant mortality. for example, abuse rates and recidivism rates in jurisdictions making heavy use of criminal sanctions and child removal might be compared with matched jurisdictions that rarely use these approaches. research is also needed on these programs to identify methodological elements (such as designs that successfully engage the participation of at-risk communities) that could be incorporated into child maltreatment prevention programs. should be conducted on the detection processes that lead to the definition of cases identified in child protective services records and other social agencies that handle child maltreatment. visiting programs have great potential for enhancing family functioning and parenting skills and reducing the prevalence of child maltreatment. a national child abuse and neglect research information service, similar to the ''research in brief" program operated through the department of justice, would be a significant asset to the state agency personnel and service providers (see recommendation 8-11 in chapter 9). for example, although certain outcomes in terms of family functioning and individual development can be measured effectively, measures to classify different or multiple forms of child abuse and neglect are poorly developed. new volume provides a comprehensive, integrated, child-oriented research agenda for the nation. national leadership is necessary to develop a long-term plan that would implement the child maltreatment research priorities identified by the panel. three possible approaches deserve further consideration:The research mission of the national center on child abuse and neglect could be strengthened with the necessary staff, budgetary, and program resources so that it can provide leadership in this area;. treatment strategies need to incorporate what we have learned about consequences of child abuse and neglect. broad-based relationship with service providers that effectively disseminates research findings and encourages their use in clinical services, treatment efforts, preventive interventions, and child maltreatment programs and policies. instrumentation studies, beginning with pilot studies in a variety of public and private settings, such as medical and educational systems, are necessary to determine the nature, incidence, and prevalence of abuse and neglect experiences among children and adolescents. tragedy of child abuse and neglect is in the forefront of public attention. panel concludes that an agenda for child maltreatment research should address four separate objectives. in state definitions of child abuse and neglect as well as differences in verification procedures result in significant unevenness in the quality of research data on child maltreatment reports. a research framework that provides standardized classifications and descriptions of child maltreatment investigations, adjudications, and treatment services should be developed. priority 10: research on the operation of the existing child protection and child welfare systems is urgently needed. of data sharing, privacy, confidentiality, and autonomy in the field of child maltreatment research need further development, especially in prospective studies of maltreating and nonmaltreating families. our country spends little on building the knowledge and resource base we need to treat and prevent incidents of child abuse and neglect, particularly in light of the enormous human, economic, and social costs associated with violence toward children. the consequences of child maltreatment may be significantly influenced by a combination of risk factors that have not been well described or understood. priority 16: research is needed to identify organizational innovations that can improve the process by which child maltreatment research findings are disseminated to practitioners and policy makers.

(Research Proposal) The consequences of child abuse in Nigeria: A

Child Welfare Laws and Legislation | State Child Welfare Policies

we need knowledge that can:Suggested citation: "10 priorities for child maltreatment research. however, such a proposal requires clarification of the research programs of other acyf components and the consideration of the sustainability of its research mission separated from programmatic activities. cultural and ethnic diversity of the corps of research investigators concerned with child maltreatment studies is not broad enough to explore the importance of culture and ethnicity in theories, instrumentation, and other aspects of research on child abuse and neglect. nature and scope of child maltreatment our nation's ability to diagnose, treat, and prevent child maltreatment depends greatly on the quality of the tools that are available to address the problem. sexual abuse prevention research also needs to integrate knowledge of factors that support or impede disclosure of abuse in the natural setting, including factors that influence adult recognition of sexual abuse and situations at risk for child abuse (see recommendation 5-2 in chapter 5). research is also needed to determine the degrees to which criminal sanctions deter child abuse and the degree to which removal of offenders or children from the home protects the child from abuse. the proposed corps of research-practitioners will encourage the development of studies on selected child maltreatment issues as well as facilitate the integration of relevant research findings into agency services and programs. furthermore, congress should recognize that the level of financial support currently available for research on child maltreatment is not well understood or easily obtainable. knowing more about the nature and scope of child maltreatment in the general population will also provide insights into the extent to which health professionals, social services staff, educators, law enforcement personnel, and others should be trained in this area. at the same time, research on child maltreatment requires guidance, coordination, and leadership to organize the research base and cultivate future generations of researchers who are well trained and informed about the evolution of research questions in this field. for example, although certain outcomes in terms of family functioning and individual development can be measured effectively, measures to classify different or multiple forms of child abuse and neglect are poorly developed. these problems may constitute stressors that affect the psychological well-being of children, families, and communities. the consequences of child maltreatment may be significantly influenced by a combination of risk factors that have not been well described or understood. priorities for child maltreatment research despite the magnitude and significance of the problem of child maltreatment, research in this area is still in an early stage of development., empirical analyses of research protocols and institutional research board reviews of proposed research projects on child maltreatment should be conducted to determine factors that influence approval and disapproval decisions, the use of waivers and certificates of confidentiality, and other factors that affect the manner in which research investigators address ethical and legal issues in the course of their research (see recommendations 9-1 through 9-4 in chapter 9). such research can also contribute to effective partnerships among scientists, practitioners, clinicians, and governmental officials to encourage the use of sound research results in formulating policies, programs, and services that affect the lives of thousands of children and their families. a science policy for child maltreatment research that recognizes the importance of national leadership, human resources, instrumentation, financial resources, and appropriate institutional arrangements for child maltreatment research. clinicians and other service providers to refer potentially abusive parents and endangered children for direct assistance without requiring clear evidence of maltreatment prior to the delivery of services (see recommendations 2-2 and 2-4 in chapter 2). sufficient incentive for state child welfare agencies to become equal partners in the research process while acknowledging the problems (e. this proposal has the advantage of placing child maltreatment research within an agency that has a record of scientific achievement and experienced research staff. three possible approaches deserve further consideration:The research mission of the national center on child abuse and neglect could be strengthened with the necessary staff, budgetary, and program resources so that it can provide leadership in this area;. priority 14: governmental leadership is needed to sustain and improve the capabilities of the available pool of researchers who can contribute to studies of child maltreatment. its responsibilities in providing federal funds for state child maltreatment programs also create a political climate in which the expansion of the research program may be seen as a weakening of a commitment to child maltreatment services, if additional funds are not available for the full range of program activity. modalities that are appropriate for children and offenders depending on their sex, age, social class, spoken language or culture, and type of abuse. similarly, research on child abuse, stress, and trauma needs to integrate findings from the psychological literature with more recent physiological findings, such as those that examine the relationship between sexual abuse, stress, and early puberty. broad-based relationship with service providers that effectively disseminates research findings and encourages their use in clinical services, treatment efforts, preventive interventions, and child maltreatment programs and policies. do not yet know if there are links between different forms of child maltreatment. the origins and consequences of child maltreatment research priority 4: research that examines the processes by which individual, family, community, and social factors interact will improve understanding of the causes of child maltreatment and should be supported. as a first step, the panel recommends that the relevant budgets for child maltreatment research of the national center on child abuse and neglect, the national institute of mental health, the national institute of child health and human development, the centers for disease control and prevention, and the department of justice be doubled over the next three years. evaluation studies currently rely heavily on reported incidents of child maltreatment as a measure of program effectiveness. the origins and consequences of child maltreatment research priority 4: research that examines the processes by which individual, family, community, and social factors interact will improve understanding of the causes of child maltreatment and should be supported. clinicians and other service providers to refer potentially abusive parents and endangered children for direct assistance without requiring clear evidence of maltreatment prior to the delivery of services (see recommendations 2-2 and 2-4 in chapter 2). a research framework that provides standardized classifications and descriptions of child maltreatment investigations, adjudications, and treatment services should be developed. priority 3: epidemiologic studies on the incidence and prevalence of child abuse and neglect should be encouraged, as well as the inclusion of research questions about child maltreatment in other national surveys. following steps need to be taken to foster career development and to expand the human resources that provide the foundation for studies of child maltreatment:The interdisciplinary nature of child maltreatment research requires the development of specialized disciplinary expertise as well as opportunities for collaborative research studies. volume will be useful to organizations involved in research, social service agencies, child advocacy groups, and researchers. federal government spent about million in fiscal year 1992 on research directly related to child maltreatment. sufficient incentive for state child welfare agencies to become equal partners in the research process while acknowledging the problems (e. effective questioning strategies for children have not been established, programs are also necessary to foster diagnostic research in this field. an understanding of the origins and consequences of child maltreatment to establish a foundation for improving the quality of future policy and program efforts to address this problem;. furthermore, major prevention programs need to include a long-term follow-up as part of their evaluation, including information on long-term outcomes, such as arrests for violent behavior and child abuse (see recommendation 5-3 in chapter 5). effective questioning strategies for children have not been established, programs are also necessary to foster diagnostic research in this field. empirical base of knowledge that guides state programs and practices in the area of child maltreatment needs national attention and sustained organization.

researchers in child maltreatment projects increasingly need to cross disciplinary boundaries, in terms of theories, instrumentation, and constructs, and to integrate relevant literature from multiple disciplines. at the same time, research on child maltreatment requires guidance, coordination, and leadership to organize the research base and cultivate future generations of researchers who are well trained and informed about the evolution of research questions in this field. should be conducted on the detection processes that lead to the definition of cases identified in child protective services records and other social agencies that handle child maltreatment. such evaluations should identify the outcomes to be assessed, clarify the instrumentation and measures that can provide effective indicators of child and family well-being or dysfunction, develop the criteria that should be considered in evaluating the effectiveness of a specific program or service, and use appropriate control groups. present, the lead federal research agency for child maltreatment studies (the national center on child abuse and neglect) does not meet all these criteria. research mission of the national center on child abuse and neglect could be consolidated with the research functions of other bureaus and centers within the administration of children, youth, and families (such as head start, the children's bureau, and others) so that a research institute within acyf could develop scientific studies directly relevant to existing and proposed acyf programs. this approach can reveal the real-world complexities of the outcomes of specific and general types of child maltreatment, including gender differences in vulnerability and manifestations of subsequent problem behaviors, the effects of the developmental stage, cultural environment, and belief system of the individual, and the role of protective factors and interventions in the lives of abused and neglected children that appear to lead to more positive outcomes. priority 2: reliable and valid clinical-diagnostic and research instruments for the measurement of child maltreatment are needed to operationalize the definitions discussed under research priority 1. the data and information collected by child death fatality review teams in various localities may also serve as an important source of information for future research (see recommendations 3-1 through 3-5 in chapter 3). given the uncertainties associated with official detection of child maltreatment, such outcomes may have limited value in measuring the achievements or limitations of a selected program intervention. an understanding of the origins and consequences of child maltreatment to establish a foundation for improving the quality of future policy and program efforts to address this problem;. is needed on the extent to which community-based prevention and intervention programs (such as school-based violence and domestic violence prevention programs, and head start) focused on families at risk of multiple problems may affect the likelihood of child maltreatment. strengthening the existing research effort of the national center on child abuse and neglect has the advantage of continuing the core research activity developed within that agency and ensuring an explicit focus on child maltreatment research. the national center on child abuse and neglect should encourage the development of a collaborative state consortium to serve as a documentation and research support center. needs to recognize the centrality of the issue of child maltreatment in contributing to a wide range of social problems and family pathologies. modalities that are appropriate for children and offenders depending on their sex, age, social class, spoken language or culture, and type of abuse. child maltreatment is known to be a significant factor in the. more needs to be known about the effects of what are considered to be normal or acceptable forms of physical discipline, sexual behavior, and parenting styles within various cultural, ethnic, and residential subgroups because cultural norms can have an impact on child maltreatment. empirical information about the strengths and limitations of existing interventions in preventing and treating child maltreatment to guide the development of new and more effective interventions; and. and state agencies should develop mechanisms for interdisciplinary graduate and postgraduate training programs focused on the examination of child maltreatment issues. have very poor information about the methods and mechanisms used to identify and confirm cases of child maltreatment, to evaluate the severity of child and family dysfunction, to assess personal and social resources, family strengths, and extrafamilial influences, and to match clients to appropriate treatments based on these formulations. effects of risk potentiating and protective factors in diverse cultural and ethnic groups have not been adequately explored in examining both the origins and consequences of child maltreatment. creation of a corps of research-practitioners familiar with studies of child maltreatment should be an explicit goal of federal, state, and private agencies that operate programs in areas of child welfare, child protection, maternal and child health, spousal violence, and child maltreatment. child maltreatment is known to be a significant factor in the. priority 14: governmental leadership is needed to sustain and improve the capabilities of the available pool of researchers who can contribute to studies of child maltreatment. the presence or absence of certain characteristics and events in the child's environment may influence a child's response to maltreatment experiences; in some cases the combined effects of two stressors (such as family environment and poor caretaking) may be greater than the sum of the two considered separately. considerable work on instrumentation, including investigations into effective questioning strategies, the panel recommends the funding of a series of population-based epidemiologic studies of different size and scope, including children of different ages and different ethnic or cultural backgrounds, to address different child maltreatment research questions. that provide opportunities for researchers to receive feedback from their peers on the quality of their proposals and to incorporate that feedback in revised and improved research proposals;. the behaviors, characteristics, and experiences of the child and the caretaker and the quality of the caretaking environment need to be assessed by research instruments rather than relying solely on administrative reports. administrative process that ensures that research proposals will be evaluated on the basis of the quality of the work proposed rather than the political or programmatic relationships of the research investigators;. furthermore, major prevention programs need to include a long-term follow-up as part of their evaluation, including information on long-term outcomes, such as arrests for violent behavior and child abuse (see recommendation 5-3 in chapter 5). exposure to a greater number of risk factors increases the risk for violence and child abuse, then community-based prevention and intervention programs need to target multiple childhood risk factors in both the family and the school domains, as well as within the broader social context of the child (e. given the uncertainties associated with official detection of child maltreatment, such outcomes may have limited value in measuring the achievements or limitations of a selected program intervention. the treatment of children with developmental disabilities, past histories of abuse, and factors associated with maintenance of treatment effects (e. state data-processing systems so that uniform individual-level data are available and unduplicated counts of children affected by abuse and neglect are easily obtainable;. although the inclusion of questions on child maltreatment may raise issues of cost and administrative burdens, past surveys and secondary analyses of existing data sets represent important research opportunities that could provide further insights into the nature and frequency of child abuse and neglect. the use of appropriate measures in many different areas of child maltreatment is uneven. directory of active research investigators, identifying key fields of research interests, should be developed in collaboration between professional societies and child advocacy organizations whose members have research experience on child abuse and neglect. effective questioning strategies for children have not been established, programs are also necessary to foster diagnostic research in this field. similarly, research on child abuse, stress, and trauma needs to integrate findings from the psychological literature with more recent physiological findings, such as those that examine the relationship between sexual abuse, stress, and early puberty. at present, we have limited knowledge about the range or nature of treatment and preventive services for child maltreatment or the context in which these services are available to children and their families. tragedy of child abuse and neglect is in the forefront of public attention. priority 5: research that clarifies the common and divergent pathways in the etiologies of different forms of child maltreatment for diverse populations is essential to improve the quality of future prevention and intervention efforts.

the common practice of treating abused and neglected children together may reveal only a partial portrait of childhood victims' risk for later consequences. priority 16: research is needed to identify organizational innovations that can improve the process by which child maltreatment research findings are disseminated to practitioners and policy makers. fragmentation in the federal research effort focused on child maltreatment requires immediate attention. research is also needed on these programs to identify methodological elements (such as designs that successfully engage the participation of at-risk communities) that could be incorporated into child maltreatment prevention programs. our country spends little on building the knowledge and resource base we need to treat and prevent incidents of child abuse and neglect, particularly in light of the enormous human, economic, and social costs associated with violence toward children. of child sexual abuse prevention should incorporate knowledge about appropriate risk factors as well as the relationship between cognitive and behavioral skills, particularly in situations involving known or trusted adults. visiting programs have great potential for enhancing family functioning and parenting skills and reducing the prevalence of child maltreatment. empirical information about the strengths and limitations of existing interventions in preventing and treating child maltreatment to guide the development of new and more effective interventions; and. research on service interventions must also seek to identify factors and mechanisms that facilitate, or impede, the exchange of knowledge between researchers who study the origins, nature, scope, and outcomes of child maltreatment and those who develop and implement policies and programs for child and family services in the public sector. research is needed that can identify the significant pathways by which key factors and behaviors affect child maltreatment, such as parenting styles, the use of corporal punishment, the use of violence and time-out periods in stress management and conflict resolution, and young children's relationships with strangers and abusive caretakers. furthermore, major prevention programs need to include a long-term follow-up as part of their evaluation, including information on long-term outcomes, such as arrests for violent behavior and child abuse (see recommendation 5-3 in chapter 5). is needed on the extent to which community-based prevention and intervention programs (such as school-based violence and domestic violence prevention programs, and head start) focused on families at risk of multiple problems may affect the likelihood of child maltreatment. governmental agencies and foundations that sponsor research in child maltreatment need to recognize the importance of strengthening research resources in the disciplines as well as fostering interdisciplinary collaboration that will contribute to understanding of child abuse and neglect. such models will allow researchers to learn more about mechanisms that activate or protect against individual child maltreatment and to distinguish between immediate precipitating factors and long-term chronic factors associated with maltreatment. we lack data about accessibility and affordability of treatment services for abused and neglected children and their families. scientific information about the incidence and prevalence of child maltreatment has significant implications for advancing knowledge in the field. the presence or absence of certain characteristics and events in the child's environment may influence a child's response to maltreatment experiences; in some cases the combined effects of two stressors (such as family environment and poor caretaking) may be greater than the sum of the two considered separately. such evaluations should identify the outcomes to be assessed, clarify the instrumentation and measures that can provide effective indicators of child and family well-being or dysfunction, develop the criteria that should be considered in evaluating the effectiveness of a specific program or service, and use appropriate control groups. external fellowship training for health professionals interested in child maltreatment research is particularly important, given the broad range of roles that health professionals are expected to play in detecting, identifying, confirming, treating, and preventing child abuse and neglect. volume will be useful to organizations involved in research, social service agencies, child advocacy groups, and researchers. child maltreatment is known to be a significant factor in the. of child maltreatment, ultimately leading to improved services and programs. evaluation studies should be an essential part of all major demonstration projects in the area of child maltreatment, and funds should also be available for investigator-initiated evaluation studies of smaller program efforts. instrumentation studies, beginning with pilot studies in a variety of public and private settings, such as medical and educational systems, are necessary to determine the nature, incidence, and prevalence of abuse and neglect experiences among children and adolescents. treatment evaluations need to incorporate a developmental perspective, including recognition of the impact of child maltreatment on children of different ages and in different contexts. research is also needed to determine the degrees to which criminal sanctions deter child abuse and the degree to which removal of offenders or children from the home protects the child from abuse. knowing more about the nature and scope of child maltreatment in the general population will also provide insights into the extent to which health professionals, social services staff, educators, law enforcement personnel, and others should be trained in this area. given the uncertainties associated with official detection of child maltreatment, such outcomes may have limited value in measuring the achievements or limitations of a selected program intervention. is particularly important at this time to uncover key pathways for child victimization that may be amenable to prevention or other forms of intervention. empirical base of knowledge that guides state programs and practices in the area of child maltreatment needs national attention and sustained organization. of treatments for specific forms of child maltreatment are needed to identify criteria that promote recovery and to identify treat-. priority 12: the role of the media in reinforcing or questioning social norms relevant to child maltreatment needs further study. the nature and scope of child maltreatment, guided by well-developed research definitions and instrumentation;. panel believes that questions on child abuse and neglect should be included on future national surveys (the national health interview survey, the national survey of children, and the national longitudinal survey of youth) as part of an expanded data collection effort. such research can also contribute to effective partnerships among scientists, practitioners, clinicians, and governmental officials to encourage the use of sound research results in formulating policies, programs, and services that affect the lives of thousands of children and their families. however, it is not certain that another research agency would have the authority and the necessary commitment to child maltreatment research that are necessary to sustain an effective program focused explicitly on this topic. new volume provides a comprehensive, integrated, child-oriented research agenda for the nation. new volume provides a comprehensive, integrated, child-oriented research agenda for the nation. priority 12: the role of the media in reinforcing or questioning social norms relevant to child maltreatment needs further study. cultural and ethnic diversity of the corps of research investigators concerned with child maltreatment studies is not broad enough to explore the importance of culture and ethnicity in theories, instrumentation, and other aspects of research on child abuse and neglect. similarly, research on child abuse, stress, and trauma needs to integrate findings from the psychological literature with more recent physiological findings, such as those that examine the relationship between sexual abuse, stress, and early puberty. the assessment of consequences for abused and neglected children is complicated by the co-occurrence of other problems, such as poverty, unemployment, stress, alcohol and drug problems, racism, parental mental illness, and violence. however, research definitions of child maltreatment are currently inconsistent, and the breadth and quality of instrumentation for child maltreatment studies are seriously incomplete.

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