Research proposal on consumer satisfaction

Research Proposal on- Customer Satisfaction: A Case Study on

., the sweetness of a soft drink), discrepancies from two comparison levels must be considered in determining the satisfaction associated with that attribute: one below and one above the ideal point. both of these approaches fail, however, to recognize the role of the consumer's affective response to obtained attributes in determining satisfaction. nonetheless, before accepting this interpretation of the effect of expectations on satisfaction, it should be noted that this study was based on recall of particularly satisfying and dissatisfying purchases. if, however, the discrepancy is very large, a contrast effect should occur; expectations higher (lower) than obtained outcomes should result in lower (higher) performance judgments (and consequently, less (more) satisfaction) than if expectations match obtained outcomes. indeed, no matter how outlandish a claim by a manufacturer, we would not expect the consumer to think the product had less of an attribute than that judged to exist in the absence of a manufacturer's claims. in addition, satisfaction researchers have focused on the confirmation/disconfirmation of expectations (beliefs) about attributes while attitude researchers (particularly those interested in multiattribute models) have focused on expectations (beliefs) about attributes, evaluations of those attributes, and in some instances the importance of those attributes in determining the consumer's attitude (see fishbein and ajzen (1975) for a discussion of the merit of importance weights). up to vote on this titleusefulnot usefulresearch proposal on the customer satisfaction of airtel by mohammad saiful islam0. the disconfirmation of expectations model would fail to account for consumer satisfaction/dissatisfaction in other circumstances as well. unfortunately, this increased interest in and concern about consumer satisfaction/dissatisfaction has generated a relatively meager amount of research designed to unravel the determinants of consumer satisfaction/dissatisfaction. some survey researchers have attempted to account for differences in satisfaction by correlating consumer satisfaction/dissatisfaction with an extensive variety of socioeconomic and demographic variables. swan and linda jones combs, "product performance and consumer dissatisfaction: a new concept," journal of marketing research, 40 (april, 1976), 25-33. critical review of consumer satisfaction research survey research survey research has revealed that degree of consumer satisfaction/dissatisfaction varies widely among individuals as well as over product and service categories. they found that consumers who were dissatisfied with clothing purchases were more likely to have had their expectations negatively disconfirmed than were consumers who were satisfied with purchases. day and muzafer bodur, "a comparative study of satisfaction with consumer services and intangibles," in ralph l. for example, a consumer may be forced to purchase a brand whose attributes he or she does not evaluate favorably (e., advances in consumer research, volume iii, (chicago: association for consumer research, 1976), 168-75. in the consumer setting these rewards and costs might include (but would not necessarily be limited to) the attributes of the product or service (including its cost), the pleasures or perhaps difficulties associated with interpersonal interactions with salespeople or service providers, and the approving or disapproving responses of other persons to the purchased product. it is unusual, however, for a consumer to have experienced only the ideal level of outcomes. peat,Abstract - consumer satisfaction has recently become a particularly salient concern for both business and government.. on this dimension the product performs poorly, neither poorly nor well, well), they will not indicate whether the consumer will be satisfied or dissatisfied with the obtained level of performance., advances in consumer research, volume iv, (atlanta: association for consumer research, 1977), 159-165. the more ambiguous the attribute, the smaller the discrepancy between the subjectively obtained level and the expected level, and thus the more effective high expectations would be in producing greater satisfaction. we would try to find out the customer satisfaction of airtel by working step by step accordingly. conclusions our analysis of consumer satisfaction research suggests that close attention to conceptual and methodological issues will be necessary if further progress is to be made toward understanding the determinants of consumer satisfaction. for example, a product or service provider may perform well on a number of dimensions but the product or service may cost too much or be too distant from the consumer. rather, this implies that we should be careful about attaching any special significance to satisfaction as a construct when it may simply be one measure of an attitude. simple, direct measures of satisfaction are available for this purpose. sweetness between the ideal point and the upper comparison level would also be described as satisfying by the consumer. for example, consumers who are used to tires that last 5,000 miles will be satisfied with tires that last 10,000 miles while consumers who are used to tires lasting 30,000 miles will be dissatisfied with those same tires. nonetheless, a careful examination of the research concerning the effect of expectations on perceived performance is in order because the amount of variance in satisfaction accounted for by product quality or performance is likely to be fairly high. thus while survey research has provided some useful descriptive data, it has not contributed very much to our understanding of the determinants of consumer satisfaction/dissatisfaction. the purpose of this paper is to critically evaluate the conceptual and methodological problems of this research and to propose an alternative conceptualization of the determinants of consumer satisfaction based upon thibaut and kelley's (1959) comparison level theory. however, thibaut and kelley define rewards as "the pleasures, satisfactions, and gratifications the person enjoys" (p.

"A Research Proposal: The Relationship between Customer

] implications of the proposed satisfaction model for attitude theory as indicated previously, attitude theory (in particular multiattribute theory) has implications for consumer satisfaction research because it reveals the necessity of considering the consumer's evaluative (satisfaction/ dissatisfaction) response to obtained attributes. in fact, it may be more parsimonious to consider satisfaction measures as post-consumption attitude measures. finally, we are not suggesting that this model be employed as a primary measure of consumer satisfaction for various products and services. thus as expectations increase, perceived product performance should increase and greater satisfaction should result. thus if one is interested in the effect of expectation-producing information on the consumer's response to a given purchase experience, even this small trend toward an assimilation effect may be artifactual.. handy, 1977; ash, 1978) and 2) mostly experimental research designed to assess the impact of expectations about product performance on post-consumption satisfaction or perceived product performance (e. they found that consumers who were dissatisfied with clothing purchases were more likely to have had their expectations negatively disconfirmed than were consumers who were satisfied with purchases. similarly, expectations lower than obtained outcomes should result in perceptions of poorer performance (and less satisfaction) than if expectations match obtained outcomes. clearly, if dimensions are unambiguous, expectations above objective levels of performance would not produce any increase in perceived quality and the result of such expectations would be consumer dissatisfaction. thus the validity of cardozo's contrast effect may be questioned and the effect of expectations on satisfaction is not clarified by this study. (although the disconfirmation of expectations model also assumes that satisfaction results from a relative comparison of obtained attributes to expected attributes, as outlined above, the model is too restricted to account fully for consumer satisfaction. a few investigations have been conducted to test the validity of these models of consumer satisfaction.. the consumer may have moved to a new market area or the manufacturer may have discontinued marketing the product whose attributes the consumer liked). in addition, the statistically significant relationships that have been obtained usually account for relatively small percentages of variance in consumer satisfaction (c. rather, this implies that we should be careful about attaching any special significance to satisfaction as a construct when it may simply be one measure of an attitude. even if a consumer has experienced only perfumes with the pungent odor of rotten eggs, it is unlikely that such a consumer could ever be satisfied with such a perfume although he/ she would probably be less dissatisfied with such a pungent smell than most consumers in our society. the consumer has simply used the glass-metal distinction to summarize his/her concerns about these underlying dimensions. discussion is now in order concerning the implications that the proposed model of satisfaction may have for attitude theory. ash, "a comprehensive study of consumer satisfaction with durable products," in h. & memoirbusiness & leadershipfiction & literaturepolitics & economyhealth & wellnesssociety & culturehappiness & self-helpmystery, thriller & crimehistoryyoung adultbrowse bybooksaudiobooksnews & magazinessheet musicuploadsign injoinresearch proposal on the customer satisfaction of airtelintroduction:All the members of our group have worked efficiently to survey the customer satisfaction of airtel. cardozo, "an experimental study of consumer effort, expectation and satisfaction," journal of marketing research, 2 (august, 1965), 244-9. thus the gain in satisfaction obtained by increasing perceived quality through creation of high expectations might be eliminated by the dissatisfaction associated with this discrepancy. from this userskip carouselresearch airtelmkt mgt nokiamkt mgt nokiaresearch proposal cats eyebanglalinkresearch airtelresearch proposal on the customer satisfaction of airtelresearch proposalstatement of purposecareer opportunity of financecareer opportunities of financemarketing mix & swot analysisgrameenphonesony marketing mix and swot analysismarketing mix 27pswarrant of precedenceinternational organizationassainment of online banking. cardozo, "an experimental study of consumer effort, expectation and satisfaction," journal of marketing research, 2 (august, 1965), 244-9., advances in consumer research, volume iv, (atlanta: association for consumer research, 1977), 155-8. for example, we could say that the less time a vacuum cleaner took to clean a carpet, the more a consumer would be reinforced by using it. given that attitude and satisfaction are both evaluative responses to products, it is not clear whether there are any substantive differences between the two. handy and martin pfaff, "consumer satisfaction with food products and marketing services," agricultural economic report no.) for example, with respect to a positive, finite ideal point, a consumer might ideally prefer a soft drink to be "moderately sweet. in determining overall satisfaction, each discrepancy would be weighted by the importance a consumer attaches to that attribute dimension. thus the validity of cardozo's contrast effect may be questioned and the effect of expectations on satisfaction is not clarified by this study. a few investigations have been conducted to test the validity of these models of consumer satisfaction. while perceived product performance is likely to be highly correlated with amount of satisfaction, there are other variables that may interfere with this relationship.

A Research Proposal: The Relationship between Customer

Research Proposal on- Customer Satisfaction: A Case Study on

Customer satisfaction research proposal | wondwossen shiferaw

at the time of preparing proposal we have to consider four factors – time, cost and nature of decision and availability of data.. the consumer may have moved to a new market area or the manufacturer may have discontinued marketing the product whose attributes the consumer liked). discussion is now in order concerning the implications that the proposed model of satisfaction may have for attitude theory., advances in consumer research, volume v, (ann arbor: association for consumer research, 1978), 254-62. wilkie, ann abor, mi : association for consumer research, pages: 431-437. for example, with respect to applesauce, a consumer may be concerned about whether the container is metal or glass. both of these approaches fail, however, to recognize the role of the consumer's affective response to obtained attributes in determining satisfaction.) yet, a different construct, attitude, has been more frequently employed by consumer behavior researchers to refer to evaluative responses to products. overall satisfaction with a soft drink should be a sum of the discrepancies of all relevant attributes from their appropriate cl's with each discrepancy weighted by the importance of the attribute with which it is associated. (although the disconfirmation of expectations model also assumes that satisfaction results from a relative comparison of obtained attributes to expected attributes, as outlined above, the model is too restricted to account fully for consumer satisfaction. an alternative conceptualization of consumer satisfaction although many researchers in the area of consumer satisfaction are not fully acquainted with thibaut and kelley's (1959) comparison level theory, it may provide a useful basis for understanding post-consumption satisfaction/ dissatisfaction with products and services. according to thibaut and kelley, the consumer's satisfaction with the outcome of a purchase would be determined by the discrepancy between the outcome and a standard of comparison known as the comparison level (cl). airtelby mohammad saiful islammkt mgt nokiaby mohammad saiful islammkt mgt nokiaby mohammad saiful islamresearch proposal cats eyeby mohammad saiful islambanglalinkby mohammad saiful islamresearch airtelby mohammad saiful islamresearch proposal on the customer satisfaction of airtelby mohammad saiful islamresearch proposalby mohammad saiful islamstatement of purposeby mohammad saiful islamcareer opportunity of financeby mohammad saiful islamcareer opportunities of financeby mohammad saiful islammarketing mix & swot analysisby mohammad saiful islamgrameenphoneby mohammad saiful islamsony marketing mix and swot analysisby mohammad saiful islammarketing mix 27psby mohammad saiful islamwarrant of precedenceby mohammad saiful islammore from mohammad saiful islamskip carouselresearch airtelmkt mgt nokiamkt mgt nokiaresearch proposal cats eyebanglalinkresearch airtelresearch proposal on the customer satisfaction of airtelresearch proposalstatement of purposecareer opportunity of financecareer opportunities of financemarketing mix & swot analysisgrameenphonesony marketing mix and swot analysismarketing mix 27pswarrant of precedenceinternational organizationassainment of online banking.. handy and pfaff, 1975), and b) these incidences together with an assessment of the relationship between satisfaction and various socioeconomic and demographic characteristics (e." if the consumer has always obtained this outcome level, then the ideal point would define a single comparison level and any level of sweetness above or below the ideal point would be at least somewhat dissatisfying." if the consumer has always obtained this outcome level, then the ideal point would define a single comparison level and any level of sweetness above or below the ideal point would be at least somewhat dissatisfying. hopefully, the proposed psychological model of satisfaction will contribute important insight into these determinants. this is not to deny the role that disconfirmation of expectations may play in determining consumer satisfaction. kassarjian, "personality and consumer behavior: a review," journal of marketing research, 8 (november, 1971), 409-18. perhaps one of the major reasons for lack of integration of the two areas is that attitude researchers have focused largely on pre-decisional evaluations of products while satisfaction researchers have focused largely on post-consumption evaluative responses. if, however, the discrepancy is very large, a contrast effect should occur; expectations higher (lower) than obtained outcomes should result in lower (higher) performance judgments (and consequently, less (more) satisfaction) than if expectations match obtained outcomes. there is no method of determining from this data what level of quality would be required for the consumer to describe himself or herself as satisfied rather than dissatisfied. thibaut and kelley argue that satisfaction is determined by averaging the rewards and costs associated with an interaction and comparing the result with the comparison level. we would speculate that expectations will have some influence on the consumer's post-consumption beliefs about the performance of a product on various attribute dimensions but only when the consumer is uncertain about the level of the attribute possessed by the product (i. all other levels of sweetness would produce varying degrees of dissatisfaction, depending upon their discrepancy from the appropriate comparison level. if an interaction occurs, the ability of the model to predict satisfaction will be diminished. in consumer research volume 6, 1979      pages 431-437 conceptual and methodological issues in consumer satisfaction research stephen a. this is not to deny the role that disconfirmation of expectations may play in determining consumer satisfaction. an alternative conceptualization of consumer satisfaction although many researchers in the area of consumer satisfaction are not fully acquainted with thibaut and kelley's (1959) comparison level theory, it may provide a useful basis for understanding post-consumption satisfaction/ dissatisfaction with products and services. satisfaction research proposal17 pagescustomer satisfaction research proposaluploaded bywondwossen shiferaw  connect to downloadget docxcustomer satisfaction research proposaldownloadcustomer satisfaction research proposaluploaded bywondwossen shiferawloading previewsorry, preview is currently unavailable. day and muzafer bodur, "a comparative study of satisfaction with consumer services and intangibles," in ralph l. for example, a consumer's satisfaction with the miles per gallon achieved by his/her new car would probably be related to the discrepancy between obtained mpg and a weighted average of his/her previous cars' average mpg, the average mpg his/her friends obtain from their cars, and the manufacturer's promises about the mpg he/she should obtain from the car., conceptualization and measurement of consumer satisfaction and dissatisfaction, (cambridge, massachusetts: marketing science institute, 1977).

"A Research Proposal: The Relationship between Customer

Research Proposal on the Customer Satisfaction of Airtel

a modification of this theory, described below, may also provide insight into the determinants of consumer satisfaction with each of a product's component attributes, some combination of which presumably determines the consumer's overall satisfaction with the product., advances in consumer research, volume iv, (atlanta: association for consumer research, 1977), 155-8. in addition, satisfaction researchers have focused on the confirmation/disconfirmation of expectations (beliefs) about attributes while attitude researchers (particularly those interested in multiattribute models) have focused on expectations (beliefs) about attributes, evaluations of those attributes, and in some instances the importance of those attributes in determining the consumer's attitude (see fishbein and ajzen (1975) for a discussion of the merit of importance weights). finally, swan and combs (1976) measured both expectations about and satisfaction with clothing purchases. perhaps it is time for satisfaction researchers to give more consideration to the role of these evaluations. the unpleasantness generated by this tension will cause consumers to (mis)perceive product performance as consistent with their expectations. granbois, "predictive and normative expectations in consumer satisfaction and complaining behavior," in w. this increased interest, however, has generated a relatively meager amount of research designed to assess the determinants of consumer satisfaction and dissatisfaction. further problems and issues expectations -- the primary determinant of consumer satisfaction?] abstract - consumer satisfaction has recently become a particularly salient concern for both business and government. [a similar model could be developed to determine consumer satisfaction with the purchase circumstances by specifying the salient attributes of the purchase situation. according to thibaut and kelley, the consumer's satisfaction with the outcome of a purchase would be determined by the discrepancy between the outcome and a standard of comparison known as the comparison level (cl). all other levels of sweetness would produce varying degrees of dissatisfaction, depending upon their discrepancy from the appropriate comparison level. ash, "a comprehensive study of consumer satisfaction with durable products," in h. [expectations can also be the result of past experience with similar products or knowledge about other consumers' experiences with similar products. thus as expectations increase, perceived product performance should increase and greater satisfaction should result. it is unusual, however, for a consumer to have experienced only the ideal level of outcomes. in fact, it may be more parsimonious to consider satisfaction measures as post-consumption attitude measures. nonetheless, while there may be situations where this will occur, we would argue that the proposed model can account for a large proportion of the variability in consumer satisfaction. simple, direct measures of satisfaction are available for this purpose., advances in consumer research, volume iii, (chicago: association for consumer research, 1976), 168-75. kassarjian, "personality and consumer behavior: a review," journal of marketing research, 8 (november, 1971), 409-18. in addition, if the two concepts are highly similar, one might ask whether theory and research under the label of attitudes might contribute to an understanding of theory and research under the label of satisfaction, and vice versa. overall, we would hypothesize that the creation of expectations above objective performance or quality levels would typically result in some degree of consumer dissatisfaction. an alternative model of consumer satisfaction based upon thibaut and kelley's (1959) comparison level theory is proposed. [miller (1977) appears to be the only satisfaction researcher who acknowledges the usefulness of their approach. we would speculate that expectations will have some influence on the consumer's post-consumption beliefs about the performance of a product on various attribute dimensions but only when the consumer is uncertain about the level of the attribute possessed by the product (i. the purpose of this paper is to critically evaluate the conceptual and methodological problems of this research and to propose an alternative conceptualization of the determinants of consumer satisfaction based upon thibaut and kelley's (1959) comparison level theory. a modified comparison level theory of satisfaction while the comparison process described above may therefore be meaningless because the obtained outcome already contains the necessary affective information, extension of the concept of comparison to the attribute level may prove to be meaningful. if rewards are merely satisfactions and costs merely dissatisfactions, then the satisfaction associated with the obtained outcome is the average of the component rewards and costs and recourse to a comparison level is unnecessary to determine overall satisfaction with that outcome. thibaut and kelley's theory is particularly appealing because it explicitly recognizes that satisfaction is not an absolute phenomenon but rather a relative one. [expectations can also be the result of past experience with similar products or knowledge about other consumers' experiences with similar products. swan and linda jones combs, "product performance and consumer dissatisfaction: a new concept," journal of marketing research, 40 (april, 1976), 25-33.

Research proposal on customer satisfaction - Custom Research

. olshavsky and miller, 1972; anderson, 1973), hypothesizes that consumers will experience psychological tension when an inconsistency exists between an expected and obtained level of performance. perhaps it is time for satisfaction researchers to give more consideration to the role of these evaluations. thus for ambiguous dimensions, expectations above the objective performance level may increase judgments about the quality or performance of the product and therefore increase satisfaction. (although some researchers may be more interested in satisfaction with the purchase circumstances, that is also an evaluative response. thus while survey research has provided some useful descriptive data, it has not contributed very much to our understanding of the determinants of consumer satisfaction/dissatisfaction. in this event expectations higher than obtained outcomes should result in higher performance judgments (and therefore greater satisfaction) than if expectations match obtained performance. main purpose & objectives of this study is • • • • to know whether the signal is good in their area to recommend measures for improving the product to know the perception & satisfaction to manage the relationship between management & customer. unfortunately, examination of this research reveals serious methodological problems which cause further difficulties in making inferences about the effect of expectations on consumer satisfaction. in determining overall satisfaction, each discrepancy would be weighted by the importance a consumer attaches to that attribute dimension. the investigators have simply assumed that assessment of perceived product performance on quality is equivalent to assessing satisfaction; however, perceived product performance or quality is not necessarily the same as satisfaction. unfortunately, rather than measuring the impact of expectations on satisfaction, they have usually measured the impact of expectations on perceived product performance or quality (cardozo, 1965; anderson, 1973; other studies such as those by olshavsky and miller (1972) and olson and dover (1976) have been misclassified by various researchers as studies of the relationship between expectations and satisfaction when in fact they only claim to study the relationship between expectations and perceived performance). miller, "consumer expectations, product performance, and perceived product quality,'' journal of marketing research, 9 (february, 1972), 19-21. in the consumer setting these rewards and costs might include (but would not necessarily be limited to) the attributes of the product or service (including its cost), the pleasures or perhaps difficulties associated with interpersonal interactions with salespeople or service providers, and the approving or disapproving responses of other persons to the purchased product. in consumer research volume 6, 1979      pages 431-437 conceptual and methodological issues in consumer satisfaction research stephen a. an alternative model of consumer satisfaction based upon thibaut and kelley's (1959) comparison level theory is proposed. if satisfaction with a product is essentially the same as attitude toward a product, one might ask why satisfaction research has not been integrated with attitude theory and research., conceptualization and measurement of consumer satisfaction and dissatisfaction, (cambridge, massachusetts: marketing science institute, 1977). if satisfaction with a product is essentially the same as attitude toward a product, one might ask why satisfaction research has not been integrated with attitude theory and research. [miller (1977) appears to be the only satisfaction researcher who acknowledges the usefulness of their approach. granbois, "predictive and normative expectations in consumer satisfaction and complaining behavior," in w. thibaut and kelley's theory is particularly appealing because it explicitly recognizes that satisfaction is not an absolute phenomenon but rather a relative one. "contrast theory," traceable to helson's (1964) adaptation-level theory, suggests that consumers will compare actual performance of a product to their expectations about performance. a new brand may be produced with attributes the consumer evaluates more favorably than the attributes of other brands presently on the market. the investigators have simply assumed that assessment of perceived product performance on quality is equivalent to assessing satisfaction; however, perceived product performance or quality is not necessarily the same as satisfaction. the proposed model can be formally expressed as: equations  (1)  and  (2) where: sj = post-consumption satisfaction with brand j ii = importance the consumer attaches to attribute i "i = subjectively experienced attribute level cli = comparison level for attribute i pi = average of personally experienced attribute levels ri = average of attribute levels experienced by referent persons (similar others) ei = expected value of the attribute level based on the unique characteristics of the present purchase situation (i. even if a consumer has experienced only perfumes with the pungent odor of rotten eggs, it is unlikely that such a consumer could ever be satisfied with such a perfume although he/ she would probably be less dissatisfied with such a pungent smell than most consumers in our society. Proposal on The Customer satisfaction of AirtelIntroduction: All the members of our group have worked efficiently to survey the cu. perhaps one of the major reasons for lack of integration of the two areas is that attitude researchers have focused largely on pre-decisional evaluations of products while satisfaction researchers have focused largely on post-consumption evaluative responses. a number of functional relationships between expectations and obtained performance have been proposed to explain satisfaction, but the research has concentrated on three basic approaches. it can be speculated that the consumer's overall satisfaction with a car would be an additive function [it is conceivable that this could be an averaging function; however, it is not the purpose of this paper to further explore the adding-averaging controversy. peat (1979) ,"conceptual and methodological issues in consumer satisfaction research", in na - advances in consumer research volume 06, eds. what we have proposed is a conceptual model of the major determinants of consumer satisfaction which, if verified by empirical research, should provide further insight into the causes of consumer satisfaction/dissatisfaction.] abstract - consumer satisfaction has recently become a particularly salient concern for both business and government.

  • SERVICE QUALITY AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION IN CHINESE

    introduction consumer satisfaction has long been a central concern of modern marketing practitioners (kotler, 1976) and more recently a major concern of various governmental agencies engaged in consumer protection activities. there is no method of determining from this data what level of quality would be required for the consumer to describe himself or herself as satisfied rather than dissatisfied. given these problems, what can be said about the effect of expectations on satisfaction?, conceptualization and measurement of consumer satisfaction and dissatisfaction, (cambridge, massachusetts: marketing science institute, 1977). kjell gr°nhaug, "exploring consumer complaining behavior: a model and some empirical results," in w. this does not mean that satisfaction is an inappropriate measure of the post-decision evaluative response or that it should be supplanted by other measures used by attitude researchers. critical review of consumer satisfaction research survey research survey research has revealed that degree of consumer satisfaction/dissatisfaction varies widely among individuals as well as over product and service categories. drawing a parallel to the situation of the consumer, this means that the comparison level for the outcome associated with any given product or service will be a function of experiences with similar products or services in the past, to a lesser extent the experiences of similar consumers, and to a still lesser extent outcomes promised by the manufacturer, retailer, and/or service provider. if obtained performance is less than expected, consumers will be dissatisfied., conceptualization and measurement of consumer satisfaction and dissatisfaction, (cambridge, massachusetts: marketing science institute, 1977). the research can be classified into two major streams: 1) survey research designed to assess a) incidences of satisfaction/dissatisfaction for various products and services (e. while this approach to understanding overall satisfaction with a product or service appears to be useful, a word of caution is in order. it can be speculated that the consumer's overall satisfaction with a car would be an additive function [it is conceivable that this could be an averaging function; however, it is not the purpose of this paper to further explore the adding-averaging controversy., consumer satisfaction, dissatisfaction, and complaining behavior, division of business research, indiana university, 1977, 64-74. nonetheless, a careful examination of the research concerning the effect of expectations on perceived performance is in order because the amount of variance in satisfaction accounted for by product quality or performance is likely to be fairly high. some survey researchers have attempted to account for differences in satisfaction by correlating consumer satisfaction/dissatisfaction with an extensive variety of socioeconomic and demographic variables. indeed, it would be reasonable to expect that the consumer in the first example (forced to purchase an unsatisfactory product) might have been more dissatisfied had the disliked attributes been unexpected, and the consumer in the second example (purchasing a product with favorable but less-than-expected attributes) would have been more satisfied had the manufacturer not created unrealistic expectations. thus for ambiguous dimensions, expectations above the objective performance level may increase judgments about the quality or performance of the product and therefore increase satisfaction. cautions concerning the proposed model four final caveats are in order concerning the proposed model of satisfaction. anderson, "consumer dissatisfaction: the effect of disconfirmed expectancy on perceived product performance," journal of marketing research, 10(february, 1973), 38-44. the proposed model can be formally expressed as: equations  (1)  and  (2) where: sj = post-consumption satisfaction with brand j ii = importance the consumer attaches to attribute i "i = subjectively experienced attribute level cli = comparison level for attribute i pi = average of personally experienced attribute levels ri = average of attribute levels experienced by referent persons (similar others) ei = expected value of the attribute level based on the unique characteristics of the present purchase situation (i. drawing a parallel to the situation of the consumer, this means that the comparison level for the outcome associated with any given product or service will be a function of experiences with similar products or services in the past, to a lesser extent the experiences of similar consumers, and to a still lesser extent outcomes promised by the manufacturer, retailer, and/or service provider. satisfaction with a product is simply an evaluative response to that product. obviously, the more ambiguous the attribute, the more the consumer will be forced to rely on the expectation-producing information rather than personal judgment in forming a belief about the attribute level. nonetheless, while there may be situations where this will occur, we would argue that the proposed model can account for a large proportion of the variability in consumer satisfaction. according to contrast theory, this discrepancy which remains between the subjective and expected attribute levels will contribute to dissatisfaction. in addition, if the two concepts are highly similar, one might ask whether theory and research under the label of attitudes might contribute to an understanding of theory and research under the label of satisfaction, and vice versa. conclusions our analysis of consumer satisfaction research suggests that close attention to conceptual and methodological issues will be necessary if further progress is to be made toward understanding the determinants of consumer satisfaction. cautions concerning the proposed model four final caveats are in order concerning the proposed model of satisfaction. (although some researchers may be more interested in satisfaction with the purchase circumstances, that is also an evaluative response.., the sweetness of a soft drink), discrepancies from two comparison levels must be considered in determining the satisfaction associated with that attribute: one below and one above the ideal point. miller, "studying satisfaction, modifying models, eliciting expectations, posing problems, and making meaningful measurements," in h. finally, we are not suggesting that this model be employed as a primary measure of consumer satisfaction for various products and services.
  • Conceptual and Methodological Issues in Consumer Satisfaction

    overall, we would hypothesize that the creation of expectations above objective performance or quality levels would typically result in some degree of consumer dissatisfaction. a new brand may be produced with attributes the consumer evaluates more favorably than the attributes of other brands presently on the market. we would speculate, however, that the consumer's evaluation of the product's attributes may account for more of the variability in post-purchase satisfaction than would the confirmation or disconfirmation of expectations about those attributes. in this event expectations higher than obtained outcomes should result in higher performance judgments (and therefore greater satisfaction) than if expectations match obtained performance. arguing from the perspective of ahtola's (1975) multiattribute attitude model, olson and dover conclude that expectations should be defined as the consumer's beliefs about the levels of attributes possessed by a product. it is understandable that pre-decisional attitude research has not focused on the confirmation or disconfirmation of expectations, but it is not clear why satisfaction researchers have largely ignored the role of evaluations associated with obtained attributes. given that attitude and satisfaction are both evaluative responses to products, it is not clear whether there are any substantive differences between the two. research on consumer expectations some consumer researchers have theorized that satisfaction is a function of the discrepancy between a consumer's expectations about the performance of a product and obtained product performance. the consumer has simply used the glass-metal distinction to summarize his/her concerns about these underlying dimensions. unfortunately, rather than measuring the impact of expectations on satisfaction, they have usually measured the impact of expectations on perceived product performance or quality (cardozo, 1965; anderson, 1973; other studies such as those by olshavsky and miller (1972) and olson and dover (1976) have been misclassified by various researchers as studies of the relationship between expectations and satisfaction when in fact they only claim to study the relationship between expectations and perceived performance). we would speculate, however, that the consumer's evaluation of the product's attributes may account for more of the variability in post-purchase satisfaction than would the confirmation or disconfirmation of expectations about those attributes. for example, a consumer's satisfaction with the miles per gallon achieved by his/her new car would probably be related to the discrepancy between obtained mpg and a weighted average of his/her previous cars' average mpg, the average mpg his/her friends obtain from their cars, and the manufacturer's promises about the mpg he/she should obtain from the car. discriminant validity of the satisfaction construct a further issue for consumer satisfaction researchers is the discriminant validity of the satisfaction construct. thus if one is interested in the effect of expectation-producing information on the consumer's response to a given purchase experience, even this small trend toward an assimilation effect may be artifactual. even if the manufacturer created expectations that were too high, the consumer would not be dissatisfied, for despite the negative disconfirmation of expectations, the brand possesses more of the desired attributes than did previous brands. hopefully, the proposed psychological model of satisfaction will contribute important insight into these determinants. clearly, if dimensions are unambiguous, expectations above objective levels of performance would not produce any increase in perceived quality and the result of such expectations would be consumer dissatisfaction. in sum, care must be taken in making inferences about satisfaction on the basis of quality or performance judgments. even though the consumer's predecisional expectations (beliefs) about the attributes of the brand may be confirmed by post-purchase experience with the product, the consumer will still be dissatisfied with the product because of his/her unfavorable evaluation of its attributes. satisfaction with a product is simply an evaluative response to that product. anderson, "consumer dissatisfaction: the effect of disconfirmed expectancy on perceived product performance," journal of marketing research, 10(february, 1973), 38-44. kjell gr°nhaug, "exploring consumer complaining behavior: a model and some empirical results," in w., advances in consumer research, volume v, (ann arbor: association for consumer research, 1978), 254-62.) for example, with respect to a positive, finite ideal point, a consumer might ideally prefer a soft drink to be "moderately sweet. nonetheless, before accepting this interpretation of the effect of expectations on satisfaction, it should be noted that this study was based on recall of particularly satisfying and dissatisfying purchases. a number of functional relationships between expectations and obtained performance have been proposed to explain satisfaction, but the research has concentrated on three basic approaches. the consumer-ist movement has made consumer satisfaction an even more salient concern for both business and government by calling attention to consumer dissatisfaction with products, services, and marketing practices. the research can be classified into two major streams: 1) survey research designed to assess a) incidences of satisfaction/dissatisfaction for various products and services (e. according to contrast theory, this discrepancy which remains between the subjective and expected attribute levels will contribute to dissatisfaction. as long as an outcome is between the two comparison levels, a consumer will be satisfied with the attribute level. overall satisfaction with a soft drink should be a sum of the discrepancies of all relevant attributes from their appropriate cl's with each discrepancy weighted by the importance of the attribute with which it is associated.) thus if consumers purchase a product with attributes they evaluate more positively than those obtained from previously purchased products, they will be satisfied (assuming outcomes of similar consumers and expectations specific to the purchase situation are held constant). this increased interest, however, has generated a relatively meager amount of research designed to assess the determinants of consumer satisfaction and dissatisfaction.
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    • Job satisfaction research proposal - Opt for Professional Term Paper

      introduction consumer satisfaction has long been a central concern of modern marketing practitioners (kotler, 1976) and more recently a major concern of various governmental agencies engaged in consumer protection activities. further problems and issues expectations -- the primary determinant of consumer satisfaction? miller, "consumer expectations, product performance, and perceived product quality,'' journal of marketing research, 9 (february, 1972), 19-21. later sections discuss the central role these experiences may play in determining satisfaction/dissatisfaction. for example, consumers who are used to tires that last 5,000 miles will be satisfied with tires that last 10,000 miles while consumers who are used to tires lasting 30,000 miles will be dissatisfied with those same tires. while this approach to understanding overall satisfaction with a product or service appears to be useful, a word of caution is in order. sweetness between this level and the ideal point would be described by the consumer as satisfying.) thus if consumers purchase a product with attributes they evaluate more positively than those obtained from previously purchased products, they will be satisfied (assuming outcomes of similar consumers and expectations specific to the purchase situation are held constant). similarly, expectations lower than obtained outcomes should result in perceptions of poorer performance (and less satisfaction) than if expectations match obtained outcomes. obviously, the more ambiguous the attribute, the more the consumer will be forced to rely on the expectation-producing information rather than personal judgment in forming a belief about the attribute level. if obtained performance is less than expected, consumers will be dissatisfied. in addition to methodological and inferential problems with the research on consumer expectations, one may well question the theory that consumer satisfaction or dissatisfaction with products and services results primarily from the confirmation or disconfirmation of expectations created by manufacturers' or service providers' claims. unfortunately, examination of this research reveals serious methodological problems which cause further difficulties in making inferences about the effect of expectations on consumer satisfaction. even if the manufacturer created expectations that were too high, the consumer would not be dissatisfied, for despite the negative disconfirmation of expectations, the brand possesses more of the desired attributes than did previous brands., consumer satisfaction, dissatisfaction, and complaining behavior, division of business research, indiana university, 1977, 64-74. sweetness between the ideal point and the upper comparison level would also be described as satisfying by the consumer.. handy, 1977; ash, 1978) and 2) mostly experimental research designed to assess the impact of expectations about product performance on post-consumption satisfaction or perceived product performance (e. the unpleasantness generated by this tension will cause consumers to (mis)perceive product performance as consistent with their expectations. what we have proposed is a conceptual model of the major determinants of consumer satisfaction which, if verified by empirical research, should provide further insight into the causes of consumer satisfaction/dissatisfaction. however, thibaut and kelley define rewards as "the pleasures, satisfactions, and gratifications the person enjoys" (p. this comparison level is a function of past experience with various levels of the attribute (for similar products used for similar purposes), levels of the attribute the consumer is aware that similar consumers receive, and expectations created by the manufacturer, salesperson, and/or service provider. when manufacturer's claims are extreme, the consumer would attach less weight to them and they would not influence the consumer's belief about an attribute as much as they would had the claims been moderately high. for example, we could say that the less time a vacuum cleaner took to clean a carpet, the more a consumer would be reinforced by using it. handy and martin pfaff, "consumer satisfaction with food products and marketing services," agricultural economic report no. indeed, no matter how outlandish a claim by a manufacturer, we would not expect the consumer to think the product had less of an attribute than that judged to exist in the absence of a manufacturer's claims. finally, swan and combs (1976) measured both expectations about and satisfaction with clothing purchases. finally, note that because the model assumes ai is the subjectively experienced attribute level, it can account for situations in which the consumer is uncertain about the obtained level (i. sweetness between this level and the ideal point would be described by the consumer as satisfying. even though the consumer's predecisional expectations (beliefs) about the attributes of the brand may be confirmed by post-purchase experience with the product, the consumer will still be dissatisfied with the product because of his/her unfavorable evaluation of its attributes. for example, a product or service provider may perform well on a number of dimensions but the product or service may cost too much or be too distant from the consumer. for example, with respect to applesauce, a consumer may be concerned about whether the container is metal or glass. if rewards are merely satisfactions and costs merely dissatisfactions, then the satisfaction associated with the obtained outcome is the average of the component rewards and costs and recourse to a comparison level is unnecessary to determine overall satisfaction with that outcome. miller, "studying satisfaction, modifying models, eliciting expectations, posing problems, and making meaningful measurements," in h.
    • Customer Satisfaction

      the more ambiguous the attribute, the smaller the discrepancy between the subjectively obtained level and the expected level, and thus the more effective high expectations would be in producing greater satisfaction., advances in consumer research, volume iv, (atlanta: association for consumer research, 1977), 159-165. given these problems, what can be said about the effect of expectations on satisfaction?. handy and pfaff, 1975), and b) these incidences together with an assessment of the relationship between satisfaction and various socioeconomic and demographic characteristics (e. [a similar model could be developed to determine consumer satisfaction with the purchase circumstances by specifying the salient attributes of the purchase situation. in addition to methodological and inferential problems with the research on consumer expectations, one may well question the theory that consumer satisfaction or dissatisfaction with products and services results primarily from the confirmation or disconfirmation of expectations created by manufacturers' or service providers' claims. it is understandable that pre-decisional attitude research has not focused on the confirmation or disconfirmation of expectations, but it is not clear why satisfaction researchers have largely ignored the role of evaluations associated with obtained attributes. an alternative model of consumer satisfaction based upon thibaut and kelley's (1959) comparison level theory is proposed.. mpg, tire mileage), positive discrepancies should contribute to satisfaction while negative discrepancies should contribute to dissatisfaction. while perceived product performance is likely to be highly correlated with amount of satisfaction, there are other variables that may interfere with this relationship.) yet, a different construct, attitude, has been more frequently employed by consumer behavior researchers to refer to evaluative responses to products. "contrast theory," traceable to helson's (1964) adaptation-level theory, suggests that consumers will compare actual performance of a product to their expectations about performance. a modification of this theory, described below, may also provide insight into the determinants of consumer satisfaction with each of a product's component attributes, some combination of which presumably determines the consumer's overall satisfaction with the product. in addition, the statistically significant relationships that have been obtained usually account for relatively small percentages of variance in consumer satisfaction (c. arguing from the perspective of ahtola's (1975) multiattribute attitude model, olson and dover conclude that expectations should be defined as the consumer's beliefs about the levels of attributes possessed by a product. thus the gain in satisfaction obtained by increasing perceived quality through creation of high expectations might be eliminated by the dissatisfaction associated with this discrepancy. the consumer-ist movement has made consumer satisfaction an even more salient concern for both business and government by calling attention to consumer dissatisfaction with products, services, and marketing practices. as long as an outcome is between the two comparison levels, a consumer will be satisfied with the attribute level.. olshavsky and miller, 1972; anderson, 1973), hypothesizes that consumers will experience psychological tension when an inconsistency exists between an expected and obtained level of performance. unfortunately, this increased interest in and concern about consumer satisfaction/dissatisfaction has generated a relatively meager amount of research designed to unravel the determinants of consumer satisfaction/dissatisfaction. this does not mean that satisfaction is an inappropriate measure of the post-decision evaluative response or that it should be supplanted by other measures used by attitude researchers. this increased interest, however, has generated a relatively meager amount of research designed to assess the determinants of consumer satisfaction and dissatisfaction. the disconfirmation of expectations model would fail to account for consumer satisfaction/dissatisfaction in other circumstances as well. thibaut and kelley argue that satisfaction is determined by averaging the rewards and costs associated with an interaction and comparing the result with the comparison level.. on this dimension the product performs poorly, neither poorly nor well, well), they will not indicate whether the consumer will be satisfied or dissatisfied with the obtained level of performance. if an interaction occurs, the ability of the model to predict satisfaction will be diminished. finally, note that because the model assumes ai is the subjectively experienced attribute level, it can account for situations in which the consumer is uncertain about the obtained level (i. research on consumer expectations some consumer researchers have theorized that satisfaction is a function of the discrepancy between a consumer's expectations about the performance of a product and obtained product performance. later sections discuss the central role these experiences may play in determining satisfaction/dissatisfaction. indeed, it would be reasonable to expect that the consumer in the first example (forced to purchase an unsatisfactory product) might have been more dissatisfied had the disliked attributes been unexpected, and the consumer in the second example (purchasing a product with favorable but less-than-expected attributes) would have been more satisfied had the manufacturer not created unrealistic expectations. a modified comparison level theory of satisfaction while the comparison process described above may therefore be meaningless because the obtained outcome already contains the necessary affective information, extension of the concept of comparison to the attribute level may prove to be meaningful. in sum, care must be taken in making inferences about satisfaction on the basis of quality or performance judgments.. mpg, tire mileage), positive discrepancies should contribute to satisfaction while negative discrepancies should contribute to dissatisfaction.

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