Research proposal on fgm

Female genital mutilation: prevalence, perceptions and effect on

practices included assessing if fgm/c is practiced in the hcp’s families/households, whether they would subject their own daughters to the practice, and whether they had ever performed fgm/c on girls..Do you think that the practice of fgm/c can ever be eliminated in the gambia? even though the intention of hcps to carry on with the practice of fgm/c, by subjecting their own daughters to it, was considerably less than the rate of fgm/c in their family/household, this rate was still high, particularly among mandinka (64. hcps belonging to traditionally practicing ethnic groups are more willing to perpetuate fgm/c, either by having it performed on their descendants, or by performing it themselves throughout their medical practice. notably, significant differences were found among ethnic groups when hcps were asked if they considered fgm/c to be mandatory by religion. low, but still significant rate of prevalence of fgm/c found among wolof and serer, who traditionally do not perform fgm/c, indicate a phenomenon that is particularly common in rural areas, such as the regions examined in this study, the assimilation of other’s ethnic identity. this has mostly been explored among western hcps working in hospitals and primary health care centres located in receptor countries of african migrants, such as spain, the uk, switzerland, sweden, belgium, australia, and the usa [21–28], indicating knowledge gaps concerning the health and legal issues of fgm/c. nevertheless, hcps have the potential to become important agents for the prevention of fgm/c.% of girls and women have been subjected to fgm/c, which is neither prohibited nor punished by law. hcps are also on the first line of response for fgm/c-related complications. therefore, a plausible explanation for the increased awareness revealed by women is that they, by knowing how fgm/c is performed, are also able to realise how it changes female genitalia. [29] showed that medical knowledge on fgm/c was limited in nurses and their tendency was to support its continuation. [31] found that medical students were poorly informed about fgm/c-related complications, and that 52% of them believed that the practice should be maintained..Do you think it is a good idea for men to be concerned on the debate on fgm/c? hcps who denied that the practice of fgm/c has health consequences were of mandinka and fula origin. our study also shows the ignorance of hcps regarding fgm/c health consequences, because with an overall prevalence of 76. to the world health organisation (who) [1], female genital mutilation/cutting (fgm/c) includes all procedures involving partial or total removal of the external female genitalia, or injury to the female genital organs, for non-therapeutic reasons. the majority of the intra-sex differences in this study were not significant, they still showed the intricate web of meaning that surrounds the practice of fgm/c. findings demonstrate an urgent need to build hcp’s capacities for fgm/c-related complications, through strategies adapted to their specific characteristics in terms of sex and ethnicity.

What is the best way to commence research on Female Genital

this was reported by male and female hcps, showing that, in a medical setting, fgm/c is no longer reserved only to women. mandinka hcps are also less supportive towards having religious leaders preaching against fgm/c, which is in contrast to wolof and serer hcps who are more supportive. however, more than half of serer and wolof hcps had seen a girl or woman with fgm/c complications, and only 33. women’s gender identity depends on this special value, women ensure its transmission in a ceremony that encloses the practice of fgm/c with secrets, and fgm/c becomes part of the “women’s world”. [31] found that medical students were poorly informed about fgm/c-related complications, and that 52% of them believed that the practice should be maintained. likewise, the finding that there is an inverse relationship between the rate of exposure to fgm/c health consequences and the rate of intention to subject daughters to this practice, suggests that training programmes, which include a component of exposure, can become a powerful strategy for prevention. when hcps were asked directly if they considered fgm/c to be mandatory by religion, half of mandinka hcps answered affirmatively, while very few wolof hcps shared the same opinion. a considerable percentage of hcps were able to recognise the negative impact of fgm/c on the health of girls and women..As a health care provider, have you ever carried out fgm/c on a girl? the oppression of women in patriarchal african societies has widely been considered as a major reason for the emergence and continuation of the harmful practice of fgm/c. for others, such as wolof and serer, fgm/c is not a traditional practice as it can be confirmed when analysing these communities in senegal, which do not perform it [16]. mandinka hcps are also less supportive towards having religious leaders preaching against fgm/c, which is in contrast to wolof and serer hcps who are more supportive. this study seeks to contribute to this field of knowledge by examining the knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding fgm/c among hcps working in rural settings in the gambia.% of gambian girls and women have been subjected to this practice, and that in some regions, fgm/c prevalence rates are almost universal (99% in basse, upper river region). our study also shows the ignorance of hcps regarding fgm/c health consequences, because with an overall prevalence of 76. regard to men, fgm/c appears to be viewed from a moral perspective.%, respectively) hcps reported having seen a girl or woman with fgm/c complications, while this rate was 41. inter-ethnic analysis showed that the rate of prevalence of fgm/c in hcps’ families/households was comparable with the last available figures, published by unicef in the gambia [18], strengthening the credibility of our study’s results. low, but still significant rate of prevalence of fgm/c found among wolof and serer, who traditionally do not perform fgm/c, indicate a phenomenon that is particularly common in rural areas, such as the regions examined in this study, the assimilation of other’s ethnic identity.

  • Female genital mutilation practices in Kenya: The role of alternative

    mandinka respondents were also less eager regarding the idea of having hcps playing a role in eliminating fgm/c. higher consciousness in women can be explained by the fact that women have contributed to embed the practice of fgm/c into a deep social and female meaning. in the gambia, data collected in 2006 by the gambia bureau of statistics from a general population sample of girls and women (15–49 years) [39] showed a much higher rate of intention to practice fgm/c (72. in the capital, banjul, the prevalence of fgm/c is 56. the origin of fgm/c is unclear, but this practice has been surrounded with a complex symbolic meaning. hcps belonging to traditionally practicing groups were more favourable to the perpetuation and medicalisation of fgm/c, suggesting that ethnicity prevails over professional identity. hcps belonging to traditionally practicing groups were more favourable to the perpetuation and medicalisation of fgm/c, suggesting that ethnicity prevails over professional identity. for this reason, fgm/c has been adopted by traditionally non-practicing groups as part of this larger process of integration and assimilation that started, frequently through intermarriage, once they settled in communities where fgm/c is a tradition. hcps belonging to traditionally practicing ethnic groups are more willing to perpetuate fgm/c, either by having it performed on their descendants, or by performing it themselves throughout their medical practice.-sex analysis showed that female and male hcps also had similar opinions on the main three reasons given for fgm/c to be performed, although there were some nuances. these practices were examined in both sexes, more men than women assumed that fgm/c is practiced in their families/households (70. higher consciousness in women can be explained by the fact that women have contributed to embed the practice of fgm/c into a deep social and female meaning.%) observed girls and women with health complications resulting from fgm/c. for this reason, fgm/c has been adopted by traditionally non-practicing groups as part of this larger process of integration and assimilation that started, frequently through intermarriage, once they settled in communities where fgm/c is a tradition. were designed to measure the attitude of hcps towards the practice of fgm/c as follows: the feasibility of its elimination; different strategies to prevent fgm/c (including the role that can be played by islamic leaders and by hcps themselves); medicalisation; discrimination towards those who do not undergo fgm/c; and the involvement of men in the debate. these circumstances, it is not surprising to find that the highest support of medicalisation came from those hcps who relate fgm/c to religion. the oppression of women in patriarchal african societies has widely been considered as a major reason for the emergence and continuation of the harmful practice of fgm/c. the involvement of hcps is particularly urgent in rural areas, where the prevalence of fgm/c is higher than in urban areas, and several constraints hinder the access to quality health services, which is likely to increase the magnitude of fgm/c health consequences in the lives of girls and women. they also intended to carry on with this practice by subjecting their own daughters to fgm/c, with some of them reporting to have already performed it during their medical practice.
  • RESEARCH & DOCUMENTATION STUDY ON FEMALE GENITAL

    even though the intention of hcps to carry on with the practice of fgm/c, by subjecting their own daughters to it, was considerably less than the rate of fgm/c in their family/household, this rate was still high, particularly among mandinka (64. however, more than half of serer and wolof hcps had seen a girl or woman with fgm/c complications, and only 33. study aimed to examine the kap of fgm/c of gambian hcps working in rural settings. this might explain the highest resistance of female hcps to the inclusion of men in the debate on fgm/c. traditionally practicing ethnic groups are also the most reluctant to admit a role for hcps in elimination of fgm/c. when hcps were asked directly if they considered fgm/c to be mandatory by religion, half of mandinka hcps answered affirmatively, while very few wolof hcps shared the same opinion. indeed, female hcps showed less approval for continuation of fgm/c, more confidence on the feasibility of its abandonment (48. remarkable differences are also found between the prevalence rate of fgm/c in urban and rural areas. fgm/c is considered as a critical component of the process of socialisation and essential in the distinction between sexes as necessary opposites in the community, and it is linked with the two fundamental values that shape african life: sense of community and sex complementarity [11]. this situation is particularly problematic in rural areas, where health care services are scarce, distances are long and often difficult to travel, communications are poor and, as mentioned above, the prevalence of fgm/c is higher than urban areas. the medical students attended 1 week of training on fgm/c and social research skills (including data collection, entry and analysis, as well as proposal development) by a team consisting of a medical anthropologist, a biostatistician, and a medical doctor. you think that the practice of fgm/c should continue? they are also groups who more strongly embrace the continuation of fgm/c, express more scepticism about its eventual elimination, and are less supportive of prevention strategies than the other groups. fgm/c is recognised internationally as a violation of the human rights of girls and women, constituting an extreme form of gender discrimination with documented health consequences. those who defend fgm/c perpetuation argue that it is critical to preserve ethnic and gender identity, protect femininity, ensure purity and virginity, guarantee the “family’s honour”, assure marriageability, and maintain cleanliness and health [9, 10]. nevertheless, the perception of hcps on fgm/c has been barely explored in african contexts. attitudes towards the continuation of fgm/c, possible strategies for preventing it (including the role that can be played by hcps and islamic leaders), its medicalisation, the discrimination of girls who do not undergo fgm/c, and the involvement of men in the debate were examined. hcps who denied that the practice of fgm/c has health consequences were of mandinka and fula origin. nevertheless, the perception of hcps on fgm/c has been barely explored in african contexts.
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  • Knowledge, attitudes and practices of female genital mutilation

    in many societies, fgm/c has become the physical proof that confirms that a girl has been initiated through a rite of passage to adulthood, confirming her femininity and ensuring that she has received all the necessary teachings to be worthy to belong in the community.%, respectively) hcps reported having seen a girl or woman with fgm/c complications, while this rate was 41. more men than women considered that support towards fgm/c derives from the fact that it is mandatory by religion (56. therefore, it is understandable that wolof and serer hcps were found to be the most prominent groups considering the deep cultural roots of tradition as the major reason for the perpetuation of fgm/c. this value is lacking in those who do not undergo fgm/c, and justifies their discrimination. this value is lacking in those who do not undergo fgm/c, and justifies their discrimination. when female hcps become aware of the health complications that derive from the practice, the struggle begins on whether to let the secret surrounding fgm/c hide these health consequences, or, instead, choose to stand against it, facing the risk of being set apart from their community. this may also be connected with the differences found regarding the awareness of the health consequences of fgm/c. remarkable differences are also found between the prevalence rate of fgm/c in urban and rural areas. these circumstances, health care professionals (hcps) play an important role in fgm/c. this situation is particularly problematic in rural areas, where health care services are scarce, distances are long and often difficult to travel, communications are poor and, as mentioned above, the prevalence of fgm/c is higher than urban areas. in the gambia, the impact of fgm/c was assessed through a recent clinical study conducted by the authors of the present study, where we found that one out of three girls and women suffered injuries as a consequence of this practice [8].% of the respondents viewed medicalisation as a way of encouraging fgm/c and 40. answers of gambian hcp about reasons/justifications given by those in support of fgm/c. in the gambia, data collected in 2006 by the gambia bureau of statistics from a general population sample of girls and women (15–49 years) [39] showed a much higher rate of intention to practice fgm/c (72. fgm/c had lower support among women than among men. the prevalence of fgm/c is higher among mandinka, djola and fula, which are traditionally practicing groups. these practices were examined in both sexes, more men than women assumed that fgm/c is practiced in their families/households (70. to hcps, fgm/c is mainly performed because people believe that the practice is mandatory by religion (53.
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female genital mutilation report of a research methodological

Female genital mutilation and obstetric outcome: WHO collaborative

when female hcps become aware of the health complications that derive from the practice, the struggle begins on whether to let the secret surrounding fgm/c hide these health consequences, or, instead, choose to stand against it, facing the risk of being set apart from their community. regard to fula and mandinka hcps, the mandatory requirement according to religion primarily encourages and legitimises the continuation of fgm/c..Do you think it is a good idea for men to be concerned on the debate on fgm/c? ali’s study [32], conducted among midwives in eastern sudan, showed that they did not consider the practice of fgm/c to be harmful and insisted on continuing it for cultural reasons. this is indicative of the gaps in the professional education of hcps, and reinforces the need of building their capacity in the identification, management and prevention of fgm/c through quality training. practices included assessing if fgm/c is practiced in the hcp’s families/households, whether they would subject their own daughters to the practice, and whether they had ever performed fgm/c on girls. the who estimates that 140 million women and girls in the world have been victims of some form of fgm/c, and that each year, 3 million girls are subjected to, or at risk of being subjected to, this harmful traditional practice. this previous study showed that the current fgm/c practices are more accurately explained by the “peer convention” hypothesis than by the “marriage convention” hypothesis, because of the fact that they give women a capital social value that empowers them in the society, building them a social identity. however, although a new line of research on how men perceive and relate to fgm/c has already been initiated, men’s kap towards this “female” practice have scarcely been addressed. notably, significant differences were found among ethnic groups when hcps were asked if they considered fgm/c to be mandatory by religion. assessment of hcps’ knowledge on fgm/c was performed by exploring the reasons given for the practice to be performed, as well as through acknowledging hcps’ awareness of its health consequences. when asked if hcps have a role to play in eliminating fgm/c, 73. achieve the proposed objective, a cross-sectional descriptive study was designed to examine the kap of gambian hcps regarding fgm/c. interestingly, not all hcps who were part of families who practice fgm/c intended to perpetuate it in their descendants. inter-ethnic analysis showed that the rate of prevalence of fgm/c in hcps’ families/households was comparable with the last available figures, published by unicef in the gambia [18], strengthening the credibility of our study’s results. evaluate hcps’ knowledge on fgm/c-related complications, respondents were asked to identify five health consequences through an open-ended question. these circumstances, it is not surprising to find that the highest support of medicalisation came from those hcps who relate fgm/c to religion. findings demonstrate an urgent need to build hcp’s capacities for fgm/c-related complications, through strategies adapted to their specific characteristics in terms of sex and ethnicity..Considers fgm/c to be a mandatory religious practice (a).

Full text of "Paradigm shift in female genital mutilation : a proposal

knowledge on fgm/c health consequences (including exposure), reasons given for performing this practice, and its mandatory character in relation to religion, were examined. a considerable decrease was observed between the rates of reported practice of fgm/c in the family/household of hcps and the intention of future practice on their daughters., capacity-building strategies should be carefully designed because education per se is not a guarantee for fgm/c abandonment. in line with the most recent studies conducted in the gambia [13, 33, 36], our findings showed that fgm/c is not homogeneously practiced. the origin of fgm/c is unclear, but this practice has been surrounded with a complex symbolic meaning. however, this connection between islam and fgm/c is not consensual among hcps, despite the fact that they all come from ethnic groups with muslim affiliations. you think that the practice of fgm/c should continue? however, this connection between islam and fgm/c is not consensual among hcps, despite the fact that they all come from ethnic groups with muslim affiliations., capacity-building strategies should be carefully designed because education per se is not a guarantee for fgm/c abandonment. significant proportion of gambian hcps working in rural areas embraced the continuation of fgm/c (42. therefore, it is crucial to reach an accurate understanding of the knowledge, attitudes and practices (kap) of hcps towards the practice of fgm/c to envision effective strategies for their involvement. more men than women considered that support towards fgm/c derives from the fact that it is mandatory by religion (56. practices concerning fgm/c were assessed by investigating if fgm/c was performed in the hcps’ family/household, if they intended to subject their own daughters to fgm/c, and if they had ever performed fgm/c during their medical practice. when asked if they consider fgm/c to be mandatory by religion, 40. all types of fgm/c have consequences that undermine the health and well-being of newborns, girls, and women, exposing a situation that deserves attention in the world’s sexual and reproductive public health agenda. this previous study showed that the current fgm/c practices are more accurately explained by the “peer convention” hypothesis than by the “marriage convention” hypothesis, because of the fact that they give women a capital social value that empowers them in the society, building them a social identity. this is indicative of the gaps in the professional education of hcps, and reinforces the need of building their capacity in the identification, management and prevention of fgm/c through quality training. indeed, female hcps showed less approval for continuation of fgm/c, more confidence on the feasibility of its abandonment (48. this was confirmed in a recent encounter for policy dialogue between religious leaders and international organisations working towards the prevention of fgm/c, organised by the gambian women’s bureau, and attended by one of the authors, in september 2012.

Female genital mutilation: prevalence, perceptions and effect on

Female Genital Mutilation—new Knowledge Spurs Optimism

%) believed that fgm/c should continue to be practiced, although this opinion was more commonly shared among traditionally practicing ethnic groups. limited access to quality health care services, which is reflected by gambia’s high rates of childa and maternalb mortality [18–20], affects the well-being of those experiencing fgm/c-related complications. those who defend fgm/c perpetuation argue that it is critical to preserve ethnic and gender identity, protect femininity, ensure purity and virginity, guarantee the “family’s honour”, assure marriageability, and maintain cleanliness and health [9, 10]. evaluate hcps’ knowledge on fgm/c-related complications, respondents were asked to identify five health consequences through an open-ended question. women showed less approval for continuation of fgm/c and higher endorsement of the proposed strategies to prevent it than men. answers of gambian hcp about consequences on health of fgm/c.% for fgm/c, which increases almost up to universal rates in some regions, only 40. findings illustrate the importance of further exploring the kap of hcps in other countries where fgm/c is practiced to develop accurate and culturally sensitive methodologies for designing efficient training programmes. traditionally practicing ethnic groups are also the most reluctant to admit a role for hcps in elimination of fgm/c. achieve the proposed objective, a cross-sectional descriptive study was designed to examine the kap of gambian hcps regarding fgm/c. the involvement of hcps is particularly urgent in rural areas, where the prevalence of fgm/c is higher than in urban areas, and several constraints hinder the access to quality health services, which is likely to increase the magnitude of fgm/c health consequences in the lives of girls and women.% of male hcps considered that men should participate in the debate surrounding fgm/c, suggests their willingness to do so. an inverse relationship was found between hcps’ reported rates of intention to subject their daughters to fgm/c and rates of exposure to fgm/c health consequences. they are also groups who more strongly embrace the continuation of fgm/c, express more scepticism about its eventual elimination, and are less supportive of prevention strategies than the other groups. identity also confines the intention expressed by hcps to have fgm/c performed on their own daughters. this interpretation is supported by previous studies that have shown an association of fgm/c practices with low education levels [37, 38].%) observed girls and women with health complications resulting from fgm/c. the prevalence of fgm/c is higher among mandinka, djola and fula, which are traditionally practicing groups.%) considered that men should be concerned about the debate on fgm/c.

What is the best way to commence research on Female Genital

FEMALE GENITAL MUTILATION- EFFECTS ON WOMEN AND

hcps are also on the first line of response for fgm/c-related complications. nevertheless, hcps have the potential to become important agents for the prevention of fgm/c. findings show a concerning rate of support towards fgm/c among gambian hcps, as well as a tendency for medicalisation. likewise, the finding that there is an inverse relationship between the rate of exposure to fgm/c health consequences and the rate of intention to subject daughters to this practice, suggests that training programmes, which include a component of exposure, can become a powerful strategy for prevention. more women than men carried out fgm/c during their medical practice (7.% of hcps admitting to having performed fgm/c in girls. to hcps, fgm/c is mainly performed because people believe that the practice is mandatory by religion (53. for others, such as wolof and serer, fgm/c is not a traditional practice as it can be confirmed when analysing these communities in senegal, which do not perform it [16]. in the capital, banjul, the prevalence of fgm/c is 56. interestingly, not all hcps who were part of families who practice fgm/c intended to perpetuate it in their descendants. attitudes towards those who do not undergo fgm/c were found in 12. the complexity of the fgm/c issue is evident from the contradictory positions assumed by the women in this study, and these must be recognised and addressed. however, fgm/c is also found in europe, australia, and the usa, to where migrants brought their culture. in the short-term, fgm/c might lead to shock, haemorrhage, infections, and psychological consequences, while in the long-term, it can cause chronic pain, infections, keloids, fibrosis, primary infertility, an increase in delivery complications, and psychological sequela/trauma [2–7]. a lot more hcps might have been exposed to fgm/c health consequences without being able to connect the complications with this practice. the majority of the intra-sex differences in this study were not significant, they still showed the intricate web of meaning that surrounds the practice of fgm/c. answers of gambian hcp about reasons/justifications given by those in support of fgm/c..Do you think that girls that have not undergone fgm/c should be discriminated? in this sense, fgm/c grants women a special value, by attesting their femininity and making them worth inclusion in their social network.

Female genital mutilation practices in Kenya: The role of alternative

.Considers fgm/c to be a mandatory religious practice (a). in the gambia, the impact of fgm/c was assessed through a recent clinical study conducted by the authors of the present study, where we found that one out of three girls and women suffered injuries as a consequence of this practice [8]. fula and mandinka hcps prioritised the fact that fgm/c is mandatory by islam (58. other given reasons include the fact that fgm/c is a rite of passage (34. in the short-term, fgm/c might lead to shock, haemorrhage, infections, and psychological consequences, while in the long-term, it can cause chronic pain, infections, keloids, fibrosis, primary infertility, an increase in delivery complications, and psychological sequela/trauma [2–7]. this has mostly been explored among western hcps working in hospitals and primary health care centres located in receptor countries of african migrants, such as spain, the uk, switzerland, sweden, belgium, australia, and the usa [21–28], indicating knowledge gaps concerning the health and legal issues of fgm/c. additionally, more men than women considered that fgm/c has no consequences (3. findings show a concerning rate of support towards fgm/c among gambian hcps, as well as a tendency for medicalisation. attitudes towards those who do not undergo fgm/c were found in 12. male and female hcps receive the same training at health schools, but by the time that this study was conducted, fgm/c was not included in their academic curriculum.-sex analysis showed that female and male hcps also had similar opinions on the main three reasons given for fgm/c to be performed, although there were some nuances. assessment of hcps’ knowledge on fgm/c was performed by exploring the reasons given for the practice to be performed, as well as through acknowledging hcps’ awareness of its health consequences. to the world health organisation (who) [1], female genital mutilation/cutting (fgm/c) includes all procedures involving partial or total removal of the external female genitalia, or injury to the female genital organs, for non-therapeutic reasons. a considerable percentage of hcps were able to recognise the negative impact of fgm/c on the health of girls and women. this study seeks to contribute to this field of knowledge by examining the knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding fgm/c among hcps working in rural settings in the gambia. therefore, it is understandable that wolof and serer hcps were found to be the most prominent groups considering the deep cultural roots of tradition as the major reason for the perpetuation of fgm/c. study showed that a considerable proportion of gambian hcps working in rural areas embraced the continuation of fgm/c..Do you think hcp workers have a role to play in eliminating fgm/c? a lot more hcps might have been exposed to fgm/c health consequences without being able to connect the complications with this practice.

this interpretation is supported by previous studies that have shown an association of fgm/c practices with low education levels [37, 38]. when asked if hcps have a role to play in eliminating fgm/c, 73. mandinka respondents were also less eager regarding the idea of having hcps playing a role in eliminating fgm/c. regard to fula and mandinka hcps, the mandatory requirement according to religion primarily encourages and legitimises the continuation of fgm/c. additionally, more men than women considered that fgm/c has no consequences (3. this was reported by male and female hcps, showing that, in a medical setting, fgm/c is no longer reserved only to women..As a health care provider, have you ever carried out fgm/c on a girl? ali’s study [32], conducted among midwives in eastern sudan, showed that they did not consider the practice of fgm/c to be harmful and insisted on continuing it for cultural reasons.% of hcps reported that fgm/c is practiced in their family/household. fgm/c is considered as a critical component of the process of socialisation and essential in the distinction between sexes as necessary opposites in the community, and it is linked with the two fundamental values that shape african life: sense of community and sex complementarity [11]. male and female hcps receive the same training at health schools, but by the time that this study was conducted, fgm/c was not included in their academic curriculum. attitudes towards the continuation of fgm/c, possible strategies for preventing it (including the role that can be played by hcps and islamic leaders), its medicalisation, the discrimination of girls who do not undergo fgm/c, and the involvement of men in the debate were examined. the who estimates that 140 million women and girls in the world have been victims of some form of fgm/c, and that each year, 3 million girls are subjected to, or at risk of being subjected to, this harmful traditional practice. limited access to quality health care services, which is reflected by gambia’s high rates of childa and maternalb mortality [18–20], affects the well-being of those experiencing fgm/c-related complications.% of girls and women have been subjected to fgm/c, which is neither prohibited nor punished by law. strategies to prevent the practice, mandinka, djola, and fula hcps were less eager for the idea of religious leaders preaching against fgm/c, with this strategy finding the strongest support among wolof (71. they also intended to carry on with this practice by subjecting their own daughters to fgm/c, with some of them reporting to have already performed it during their medical practice. were designed to measure the attitude of hcps towards the practice of fgm/c as follows: the feasibility of its elimination; different strategies to prevent fgm/c (including the role that can be played by islamic leaders and by hcps themselves); medicalisation; discrimination towards those who do not undergo fgm/c; and the involvement of men in the debate. study aimed to examine the kap of fgm/c of gambian hcps working in rural settings.

RESEARCH & DOCUMENTATION STUDY ON FEMALE GENITAL

% for fgm/c, which increases almost up to universal rates in some regions, only 40.% of the respondents viewed medicalisation as a way of encouraging fgm/c and 40.% of male hcps considered that men should participate in the debate surrounding fgm/c, suggests their willingness to do so.% of hcps admitting to having performed fgm/c in girls.%) considered that men should be concerned about the debate on fgm/c. a considerable decrease was observed between the rates of reported practice of fgm/c in the family/household of hcps and the intention of future practice on their daughters. findings illustrate the importance of further exploring the kap of hcps in other countries where fgm/c is practiced to develop accurate and culturally sensitive methodologies for designing efficient training programmes. however, fgm/c is also found in europe, australia, and the usa, to where migrants brought their culture. practices concerning fgm/c were assessed by investigating if fgm/c was performed in the hcps’ family/household, if they intended to subject their own daughters to fgm/c, and if they had ever performed fgm/c during their medical practice.% of hcps reported that fgm/c is practiced in their family/household. more women than men carried out fgm/c during their medical practice (7. a culturally and gender sensitive training programme might contribute to social change, promoting the abandonment of fgm/c, avoiding medicalisation, and ensuring accurate management of its health consequences. fgm/c is recognised internationally as a violation of the human rights of girls and women, constituting an extreme form of gender discrimination with documented health consequences. therefore, a plausible explanation for the increased awareness revealed by women is that they, by knowing how fgm/c is performed, are also able to realise how it changes female genitalia. we found that women exhibited a more discriminatory attitude towards girls who had not undergone fgm/c and were more aware than men of the powerful force that lies beneath its tradition, when considering its deep cultural roots as the main reason for its perpetuation. the complexity of the fgm/c issue is evident from the contradictory positions assumed by the women in this study, and these must be recognised and addressed. other given reasons include the fact that fgm/c is a rite of passage (34..Do you think that girls that have not undergone fgm/c should be discriminated? all types of fgm/c have consequences that undermine the health and well-being of newborns, girls, and women, exposing a situation that deserves attention in the world’s sexual and reproductive public health agenda.

Knowledge, attitudes and practices of female genital mutilation

% of hcps confirming to have performed fgm/c on girls.% of all hcps had seen a girl with fgm/c-related complications raises concern, taking into consideration that an estimated 76. [29] showed that medical knowledge on fgm/c was limited in nurses and their tendency was to support its continuation. women showed less approval for continuation of fgm/c and higher endorsement of the proposed strategies to prevent it than men. answers of gambian hcp about consequences on health of fgm/c. prevalence rates of fgm/c are significantly different between ethnic groups. however, although a new line of research on how men perceive and relate to fgm/c has already been initiated, men’s kap towards this “female” practice have scarcely been addressed..Do you think hcp workers have a role to play in eliminating fgm/c? the medical students attended 1 week of training on fgm/c and social research skills (including data collection, entry and analysis, as well as proposal development) by a team consisting of a medical anthropologist, a biostatistician, and a medical doctor. regard to men, fgm/c appears to be viewed from a moral perspective. study showed that a considerable proportion of gambian hcps working in rural areas embraced the continuation of fgm/c. in this sense, fgm/c grants women a special value, by attesting their femininity and making them worth inclusion in their social network. identity also confines the intention expressed by hcps to have fgm/c performed on their own daughters. genital mutilation/cutting (fgm/c) is a harmful traditional practice with severe consequences for the health and well-being of girls and women. in line with the most recent studies conducted in the gambia [13, 33, 36], our findings showed that fgm/c is not homogeneously practiced. when asked if they consider fgm/c to be mandatory by religion, 40. strategies to prevent the practice, mandinka, djola, and fula hcps were less eager for the idea of religious leaders preaching against fgm/c, with this strategy finding the strongest support among wolof (71. a culturally and gender sensitive training programme might contribute to social change, promoting the abandonment of fgm/c, avoiding medicalisation, and ensuring accurate management of its health consequences. an inverse relationship was found between hcps’ reported rates of intention to subject their daughters to fgm/c and rates of exposure to fgm/c health consequences.

The time machine essay

this was confirmed in a recent encounter for policy dialogue between religious leaders and international organisations working towards the prevention of fgm/c, organised by the gambian women’s bureau, and attended by one of the authors, in september 2012.% of gambian girls and women have been subjected to this practice, and that in some regions, fgm/c prevalence rates are almost universal (99% in basse, upper river region). this might explain the highest resistance of female hcps to the inclusion of men in the debate on fgm/c. significant proportion of gambian hcps working in rural areas embraced the continuation of fgm/c (42. in many societies, fgm/c has become the physical proof that confirms that a girl has been initiated through a rite of passage to adulthood, confirming her femininity and ensuring that she has received all the necessary teachings to be worthy to belong in the community. we found that women exhibited a more discriminatory attitude towards girls who had not undergone fgm/c and were more aware than men of the powerful force that lies beneath its tradition, when considering its deep cultural roots as the main reason for its perpetuation. prevalence rates of fgm/c are significantly different between ethnic groups. fula and mandinka hcps prioritised the fact that fgm/c is mandatory by islam (58. knowledge on fgm/c health consequences (including exposure), reasons given for performing this practice, and its mandatory character in relation to religion, were examined. however, the fact that almost all hcps are aware of fgm/c health complications and that a substantial amount (42.%) believed that fgm/c should continue to be practiced, although this opinion was more commonly shared among traditionally practicing ethnic groups. women’s gender identity depends on this special value, women ensure its transmission in a ceremony that encloses the practice of fgm/c with secrets, and fgm/c becomes part of the “women’s world”. this may also be connected with the differences found regarding the awareness of the health consequences of fgm/c..Do you think that the practice of fgm/c can ever be eliminated in the gambia? therefore, it is crucial to reach an accurate understanding of the knowledge, attitudes and practices (kap) of hcps towards the practice of fgm/c to envision effective strategies for their involvement. these circumstances, health care professionals (hcps) play an important role in fgm/c. however, the fact that almost all hcps are aware of fgm/c health complications and that a substantial amount (42.% of all hcps had seen a girl with fgm/c-related complications raises concern, taking into consideration that an estimated 76.% of hcps confirming to have performed fgm/c on girls.

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