Chapter 23 - The role of nongovernmental organizations in extension

african governments see ngos and their work as "an affair of government" or, in other words, working as a part and in collaboration with the country's government. as ngo research is often conducted among the most vulnerable populations, where power relations are tipped in favor of researchers and those who are literate and eloquent, issues of informed consent and participants' understanding of it and the research, as well as participants having access to the benefits of research, are of special concern. share lessons learned and success stories of research involvement of ngos and their partners. not only can ngos identify researchable topics, but they can also stimulate demand for relevant research. ngos can also monitor the long-term outcomes arising from research, and make sure that the participants benefit from successful intervention. thus, personnel or materials developed by ngos can be used in health research projects at little or no cost. research activities were regarded as requiring special technical expertise, much time and effort, access to professional journals and research literature, and substantial human and financial resources, characteristics not typically found in ngos. the global forum is managed by a council of 20 members representing government policymakers, multilateral and bilateral agencies, foundations, international ngos, women's associations, research institutions, and the private sector. the executive director drafted an outline of a background paper on the role of ngos in global health research and presented to the plenary session of the annual ccghr meeting for comment and feed-back. ngos should be instrumental in building with other stakeholders coalitions for global health research with the aim of closing the 10/90 health research gap. global forum for health research, created in 1998 as a response to the report of the who ad hoc committee on health research relating to future intervention options [17], has provided a forum for stakeholders to review global health research priorities, promote ongoing analysis of the international health research situation and facilitate coalition building to support its central objective to help correct the 10/90 gap. the amendment to mou as a result of negotiations between csih and cihr included ngos as one of the important players. attention should be paid to assisting ngos in making contact with qualified researchers, and increasing ngo knowledge and skills to negotiate the terms of reference for applied research studies.[39] that can be used to constructively engage government, policy makers and other regional bodies on strategies to advance girls' education in africa. many canadian ngos rely heavily on negotiated contracts with cida, which leaves little time and place for research.

The Relationship Between the State and the Voluntary Sector

major strength of some ngos is their international networks which give them access to technical information and support. this ngo's 10/66 dementia research group has regional networks in india and south asia, latin america and the caribbean, china and south east asia, africa and russia, eastern and south eastern europe which are coordinated by dr. csih agreed to take the lead to collaborate with other key ngos to develop a paper and case studies. nonetheless, integrating graduate students in ngo projects should be a good strategy for balanced and equal partnerships. participants of the cpha symposium on ngo/university linkages for health research in developing countries [30] identified several mechanisms that could help bridge the gap between ngos and universities as a means of facilitating future collaborative research initiatives. can we ensure that ngos influence research priorities so that they are reflective and evaluative of overseas development assistance (oda) direction and priorities such as national poverty reduction strategies., the existing power structure in the research arena often works against ngos because of a narrow view of research as merely producing new knowledge, with limited consideration of upstream operations (identification of research needs, questions, and priorities), downstream actions (knowledge management, dissemination and translation), and the advocacy efforts required to connect research with policies, programs and training. future needsin light of the above issues and concerns, and in order to foster greater interest and participation of ngos in research, the barriers of lack of interest, lack of funds, lack of training and lack of recognition, among others, need to be addressed. following the creation of the coalition for global health research – canada (cghrc) in 2001, the canadian society for international health (csih) decided to review the role of non-governmental organizations (ngos) in global health research. because of their typical 'grass-roots' experience, several ngos are able to access indigenous knowledge and specific information, which may be less attainable for other types of organizations. reasons that account for the reluctance of ngos to become (more) involved in research activities pertain to ngo perceptions on research (center for advanced studies of international development. empowered citizens and ngos can demand accountability of the government. particularly when research is conducted by first world researchers in resource-limited settings, ngos who partner in this research at times need to recommend and advocate for reviews from local research and ethics committees, as well as those from industrialized countries. commission on health research for development declared in 1990 that "for the most vulnerable people, the benefits of research offer a potential for change that has gone largely untapped" [6]. is not enough networking and collaboration between ngos and the international research community, including academia.

The Role and impact of NGOs in capacity development: from

in addition, ngos can make sure that the development of local expertise in health research is an integral component of research proposals. networks to share experiences, lessons learned and policy impact can be enhanced by partnerships with ngos. knowledge translators, ngos interpret the knowledge generated by research to their constituents, a key role in working towards the vulnerable having access to the benefits of research that could improve their lives. it first states, their must be the same conditions for careers, vocational guidance, and for the achievement of diplomas in educational establishments of all categories in rural as well as in urban areas. a salient observation is that what is considered as research by different ngos is, for the most part, unclear and highly variable. if they do not recognize the government of the country they are working in, they will compromise their objectives. as researchers or research partners, ngos have a responsibility to ensure that ethical issues are addressed in both the design and conduct of the research. the working group on the role of ngos in research was affirmed as separate from the advocacy working group..1 opportunities to build ngo capacity in research, in canada and overseas. as several ngos do not see research as part of their mandate, they may not be willing to get involved in research: "ngos do not have a research mandate, and therefore we do not foresee developing research expertise in-house. ngos perceive as research and as their role in this respect varies widely. advocacy for relevant research, that is, the type of research that will make a difference in terms of equity, health, well-being and development of people, is an important role for ngos [20]. ngos may have to change their structures and priorities in order to support autonomous research. ngos on the other hand view themselves as very separate entities in african education. in some cases, ngos have found government incompetent themselves, if not their own fault, as the fault of a lack of resources.

Education in Africa - Wikipedia

this is particularly critical for global health research whose primary goal should be to improve health and its determinants in low and middle income countries. it also recognized the role of ngos as a partner in contributing to these efforts. mechanism to expand the use of research generated by ngos is to improve the linkage between ngos and universities. additionally, there are international institutions such as intrac (international ngo training and research centre) that are specifically geared towards meeting the challenges and needs of ngos in research. high scientific standards are fundamental components of effective health governance, particularly as they relate to health research systems. report goes into more detail about ngo relations with governments in education." the report continues that for ngos to be effective, they must understand that they do not have the same perspective as government officials as to who is in control. while there are ngos involved in actually conducting research, for most the focus is usually evaluation. ngos may also contribute by identifying other potential sources of funding, for instance, in the local private sector. knowledge generation is generally not a primary ngo activity, there may be specific 'knowledge generation' research niches for ngos. ngos can often play a more powerful role using the results of research than can the research community itself. following are a few key questions that could be addressed by an ngo network:1. others may be the fiduciary agent for a grant to a research organization that is exploring an issue related to an ngo program. those ngos that are part of international networks can draw from the body of research conducted elsewhere. at the time, these were quite innovative approaches to applied health research, linking the universities with local ngos.

The New Public Diplomacy: Soft Power in International Relations

partnerships could be strengthened and supported between ngos and social science researchers in resource-poor countries to improve influence potential, as the social sector issues that tend to be most relevant to human populations are also of utmost importance to ngos.: education in africahidden categories: pages with citations lacking titlespages with citations having bare urlsarticles to be merged from february 2017all articles to be mergedarticles with dmoz links. key roles of ngos in global health researchinequities in health are caused by a number of determinants, including the use of or access to health care facilities. the communities where ngos work, they can act as community partner members of and witnesses to research. this cycle applies whatever the research type, and whether the research is conducted by an ngo or an academic institution. 's disease international (adi), an ngo affiliated with who, specifically provides support for research among its numerous activities. the 1990s, there were several attempts to bridge the ngo/academic gap with respect to health research in developing countries., the prospects of university-ngo research links are constrained by funding. this has traditionally been due to a dichotomy in the interests of ngos and the academic community, in that ngos are more oriented towards a development agenda, while academics tend towards special research interests. hki's focus on blindness and micronutrients is a strength in that its research is more focused than that of other ngos involved in health and nutrition. obstacle is the fact that some ngos that raise funds from the public are afraid to go against the expectations of the donors if the money is reallocated for research, and particularly for policy research in canada: "donors do not want to hear that ngos are doing research as they are implementation organizations" (interview with c. ngos do not, as a rule, possess the internal capacity and skills to design and conduct applied research studies. ngos, moreover, can and should play an instrumental role in coalitions for global health research, such as the cghrc. finally, ngo values of ethics, solidarity and dialogue are important for health research to contribute to reducing inequities and for empowerment. this is, in part, because of the extensive interrelationships ngos have forged with different communities, organizations, the private sector and governments, among others, often over decades of dedicated work.

Research Ethics in Ethnography/Anthropology

ngos can provide not only direct funding for projects (albeit in a limited manner) but, and perhaps equally important, they can provide valuable in-kind funding. this type of ngo finds it difficult to identify resources that would allow them to conduct research. government and ngos are hold contrasting beliefs about each other's abilities. ccic sees research on policies as a critical role of ngos, and considers that ngos should be more involved in the policy debate both in canada and globally. leadership and governance issues are necessary hurdles which can be overcome by focusing on the ultimate gains in terms of supporting and conducting successful research activities. role of ngos in global health research for developmenthélène delisle1email author, janet hatcher roberts2, michelle munro3, lori jones4 and theresa w gyorkos5health research policy and systems20053:3doi: 10.^ a b c d e "africa education watch good governance lessons for primary education" (pdf).^ a b c "evolving partnerships: the role of ngos in basic education in africa" (pdf). in the best cases, ngos and government officials find each other's mutual strengths in education policy and find ways to practically collaborate and reach both of their objectives. the biggest challenge for ngos has been linking these networks together. for instance, as suggested by the canadian council for international cooperation (ccic) and actually carried out by a few ngos, "there is a need for ngos to be more involved in policy research even in canada" (interview with b. for this reason, ngo-initiated research is often more likely to be translated into practice in a timely manner as it is almost always directly related to practice. there must be a healthy relationship between communities, researchers and policy makers. set-up a core group of ngos involved in global health research to convey ngo views to global health research fora and organizations. for example, publication has traditionally not been a strength and much ngo research does not reach beyond the gray literature or report level.

The role of NGOs in global health research for development | Health

, ngos can advocate for formative and evaluative research on programs that address major health problems, but which are generally a low priority for funding agencies. what is certain is that, critically at the priority-setting stage of the research cycle, the community must be involved, and ngos may be instrumental in achieving this. role of research in mobilizing and supporting ngos, particularly around issues of inequities, is important. universities and other research organizations offer expertise in research design and application, an environment for reflection, access to and knowledge about most recent literature, a tradition of scientific rigor and interest in new, innovative research methods and approaches, and a high degree of credibility.' contributionshd designed the outline of the paper, conducted interviews with ngo representatives, wrote the first complete draft, and coordinated the review process within the csih. they can also encourage international donors to focus on the health priorities of countries and thus facilitate a check and balance mechanism for good governance. be effective in education in africa ngos must effect policy and create policy changes that support their projects. additionally, ngos are in a good position to test the ability of research findings to be scaled up in a 'real world' environment. since 1970, idrc has been providing financial and technical assistance to academic institutions, government agencies and ngos in developing countries, as a means of promoting sustainable and practical development and strengthening indigenous research capacity. lessons learned from these partnerships, in the areas of action and indeed policy and legislation (for example, in the tobacco or environment fields) show how evidence can be transformed into action with the right partnerships between researchers and ngos. second, ngos must be both proactive and interactive within the framework of the health research agenda. partnership with ngos in such capacity-building needs to be valued and reinforced. the autumn of 2002, the first request for proposals for global health research grants was released., as mentioned earlier, stronger partnerships between ngos and social science researchers in particular should be sought in resource-poor countries. it was suggested that exchanges take place wherein university researchers use sabbatical leave to work with ngos and ngo personnel be seconded to universities to provide a field perspective.

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can ngos be best represented within the international research community? lack of parent involvement, especially as an overseer of government activities also leads to enormous corruption. in order to maximize the potential benefits of health research, all partners including ngos must share a common vision and recognize and appreciate the strengths of each. and its member ngos are involved in international policy research. the most important stakeholders are usually donors and government officials. assessing and evaluating opportunities for advocacy and action occur as ngos work with communities on these issues. despite the fact that ngos were named as important partners, they were not invited to be part of the review panel for this round. ngos also found that, to see this policy change that they are striving for, they must create and foster relationships with many different stakeholders. once the evidence has been analyzed and assimilated, ngos can serve as intermediaries in delivering feedback to communities and in the planning, implementing and monitoring of new interventions, policies or other actions which might have been proposed. the ngo structure brings concreteness and a style which is guided by values and beliefs with an action orientation. with a renewed sense of purpose and a common goal, ngos and their partners intend to make strong and lasting inroads into reducing the disease burden of the world's most affected populations through effective research action. ngo interventions to change policy have revealed that ngo programmes have failed to create a successful way to change the policy process while making sure that the public understands and is a part of education policy. such partnering may be a real challenge for ngos, however, as their institutional culture is so different. ngo involvement in health researchthere is a lack of accessible and centralized information on ngo involvement in health research, although the cpha ciip2 applied research publication lists over 20 examples of ngo-related applied research carried out in the 1990s. indeed, working outside government altogether may well be a solid and sustainable strategy.

Funding for NGOs

in order to ensure that less developed countries are the principal beneficiaries, they recommend, as part of a three-pronged strategy, the nurturing and support of multi-stakeholder problem-oriented learning, and research networks which include ngos. in the past, research was an academia-driven and based, elitist and theoretical exercise, the results of which are of little use to ngos and the communities with which they work. csih is an active member of the canadian coalition for global health research (ccghr), and a key challenge in this capacity is to develop a strong foundation of understanding and mutual respect amongst all players in global health research, including ngos. of lack of training or of specialized researchers, ngos may not be in a position to conduct top quality research, and scientific rigor may be lacking in certain instances. mm provided international ngo and a field based perspectives to the paper, in addition to conducting group discussions with ngo personnel. ngos can assist in the establishment and functioning of these networks, particularly by providing stable infrastructure support. global goals echoing these commitments include the world education forum’s dakar platform, which stresses the rights of girls, ethnic minorities and children in difficult circumstances; and a world fit for children’s emphasis on ensuring girls’ equal access to and achievement in basic education of good quality. there is a role for ngos in advocating for more research on these neglected topics (see under 4. ngos may also be in a good position to identify young scientists and promising investigators in host countries. with universities and other research institutions is one means of strengthening the research capacity of ngos, and also of academia., for instance, it is studying canadian government trade and aid policy after g-8. this basic education, the report found it was nearly impossible to go on to high school or college. pares was created in 1975 to support ngos from the south and to provide international development education in canada. are open to partnerships with academia, but the goal has to be development-oriented. it usually works with partners, as it is a small ngo.

in 1995 cpha also organized a symposium on ngo/university linkages for health research [30]. africa and the arab world, promoting gender equality and empowering women is perhaps the most important of the eight millennium development goals. first, many ngos already operate at national and international levels and understand the challenges of coordination and communication which this entails. ngos can provide stewardship in terms of the promotion and advocacy for relevant research, shaping research priorities, and the setting and interpretation of ethical frameworks for research. finally, the scientific rigor demanded by researchers was believed to be difficult to achieve in field-based situations, where unpredictability and subjectivity are the norm. peer-learning process is among the strategies for ngo capacity building in research.% of gdp investment in education,[10] the loss makes it difficult for the government to budget another amount in education as they will need to prioritize other needs such as military budget and debt servicing. ngos principal roles in the process pertain to shaping research priorities, advocacy for more relevant research, translating and using research findings, in addition to generating new knowledge in areas where they may have a comparative advantage, notably qualitative, social, action, evaluative, and policy research. trust has to be developed between the ngo and academic communities, as a means of reinforcing linkages between them and building upon and using their comparative strengths, characteristics and areas of expertise to design and conduct applied research. the knowledge and information acquired by ngos can be unique and offer added insight into new ideas for future health research.édecins sans frontières (msf) was the first ngo to both provide emergency medical assistance and publicly bear witness to the plight of the populations they served. the learning process should be shared with ngos from the north and from the south. idrc's experience provides important and valuable lessons about implementing applied research in partnership with ngos [30], as summarized in the table 1.[37] ranging from teachers to prime ministers, academics to policymakers, non-governmental bodies to the heads of major international organizations, they adopted the dakar framework for action, education for all: meeting our collective commitments. is a common view that ngos are in a good position to participate in health research because of their knowledge of, and their presence in, local communities.

such networks may enhance the ability of ngos to partner with other research stakeholders in multisectoral coalitions, and even to initiate partnerships with research organizations. ngo partnerships with research organizations should be seen as means of a mutual enhancement of health research capacity and contribution to development. of the strengths of ngos has been as advocates for the populations they serve. it provides support to research projects conducted by ngos, such as, the youth and tobacco survey conducted in russia by the russian public health association, with the technical assistance of the cpha (table 6). other ngos have expressed an interest in becoming more involved in global health research. schools, parents and, most often government officials, feel threatened by third-party involvement and feel that they are "crashing the party. ngos can be particularly adept in conducting formative research (baseline studies, needs assessment), in operational or action research and in process and impact evaluation. the interviews also revealed that while some ngos are reluctant to be involved in research, others are eager to strengthen their capacity to do so. this paper highlights some of the prevalent thinking and is intended to encourage new thinking on how ngos can further this role. the feasibility of an international not-for-profit network that would focus on the most neglected diseases is being tested in the on-going pilot projects. what ngos want is to be part of the research process from the start. so, five years after the world education forum and the adoption of the millennium goals, progress at primary level is far from decisive. ngos and research organizations each have a unique 'value-added' contribution to make to global health research and therefore, partnering among them amplifies their individual strengths. there is a need to include ngos in the reconceptualization of global health research to ensure completion of the cycle from generation of knowledge to its effective use. purpose would be:To link these ngos in order for them to interact on research issues;.

Research proposal on go ngo relationship

global health academic capacity has developed within ngos both in the u.[30] the target associated with achieving this goal is to eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary enrollment preferably by 2005, and at all levels by 2015. interviews covered a broad range of cases, from ngos little involved in research to those actually conducting independent research. following summary of perceived ngo strengths (and weaknesses) in health research is based primarily on the data from individual and group interviews that were specifically conducted as inputs to this discussion paper. although types of partnerships are not specifically detailed, it is implied that ngos are important research partners. describe the key roles of ngos below, using, as a framework, the categories of primary functions of health research systems as recently identified by butler [1]. it was also recommended that, although the objective is not to transform ngos into research institutes, they should receive more training in research methods and proposal development. canadian coalition for global health research (ccghr) is developing into a network of health researchers, funding agencies, ngos, and other stakeholders committed to support the pursuit of effective global health research by ensuring that all these groups work together as effectively as possible with researchers in developing countries. billion annually to achieve the millennium development goal focused on promoting gender equality and empowering women by 2015. csih remains actively engaged in working groups on governance to determine options for institutionalization of the ccghr. creation of networks which have the common goal of supporting global health research is one way to strengthen partnerships and to consolidate valuable resources from each partner. ngos offer proximity to people and situations, reality-based and context-specific research environments, opportunities to develop and assess innovative strategies and research methods, a means of disseminating and popularizing the results of research projects, and credibility outside of academia. this section focuses on the role of ngos in shaping and interpreting ethical frameworks [22–25], that is, the incorporation of ethical principles in their research partnerships with other organizations. this suggests the need for ngos to develop common views on what is research, the various types of research, and the components of the research process.^ "bbc news | africa | why don't africa's girls go to school?

asserting that the production of knowledge is the primary function of research, and that levels of knowledge have increased considerably, a discussion paper for the international conference on health research [1] also recognizes that the ability to draw from research in terms of lessons learned, application to interventions, and programming and policies which support the overarching goal of equity, is often lacking. most of the millennium development goals face a deadline of 2015, the gender parity target was set to be achieved a full ten years earlier - an acknowledgement that equal access to education is the foundation for all other development goals. forum for african women educationalists (fawe) announces a call for the second round of research proposals from research institutions for its strengthening gender research to improve girls’ and women’s education in africa initiative. otherwise, research creates expectations within the ngo community and study population that remain unsatisfied. traditionally, many ngos which have undertaken activities that address health issues in resource-poor settings are service-oriented ngos and concentrate their efforts on implementing "action" programs. report by usaid and the bureau for africa, office of sustainable development, found that ngos are increasingly participating in contribute to the delivery of education services, education policy decisions and are included by donors and government officials in many parts of the education system. ngo views on research and its congruence with their mandate. has also provided technical and financial support through its various international initiatives funded by cida to its public health association partners to carry out of the gyts in burkina faso, niger, haiti, and cuba; and in partnership with institutes of public health in bosnia & herzegovina, serbia & montenegro, and in the un-administered province of kosovo. mobilizing communities, utilizing mechanisms for advocacy and acting as an interface between the research community and its wider community will enhance a sense of strong governance and stewardship. this should not be seen as the exclusive preserve of universities or research councils, but equally of health/public services, non-governmental organizations, etc. leveraging must be seen as a strategic tool of ngos to maximize dollars allocated to health research. governments often think ngos are unqualified to make important policy decision and that they could undermine their legitimacy if seen as superior. ngo research is often conducted on a small scale and is usually of a qualitative nature, it often goes unrecognized by governments, and even by research organizations and funding agencies, which tend to favour large scale quantitative research. additionally, ngos should consider taking the initiative in organizing scientific activities (seminars, workshops, symposia) on global health research topics, which could serve as a catalyst in bringing together different stakeholders. case studies illustrate the roles of ngos in global health research, their perceived strengths and weaknesses, and the constraints and opportunities to build capacity and develop partnerships for research.

ngos have had impressive track records in global health research. governments depend on health research for needs assessments, formulation of policy options, implementation of interventions and evaluation of action plans. for instance, it carried out collaborative research with ngos in the philippines and of bangladesh on family planning policy, and in africa it has carried out research on economic issues. ngos often have access to information that will highlight inequities and the determinants of inequities. these selected ngos provide insight into some of the critical issues facing ngo involvement in global health research.^ a b c "fawe calls for proposals to conduct research on gender and education in africa. persons working in various international ngos participated in individual interviews or group discussions on their involvement in different types of research activities. organize workshops for ngos who are, or who wish to become, involved in research, with research organizations where deemed appropriate. what could be the potential role of ngos in partnership with researchers to begin to monitor and evaluate this new direction in overall aid policy? the research that needs to be done requires the input of civil society and ngos as much at the beginning as at the end, in terms of dissemination, communication and action. there is a need to identify overarching principles of ngo contribution to health research. typically, ngo involvement in research is more downstream of knowledge production and it usually takes the form of a partnership with more traditionally-oriented research organizations such as universities or dedicated research agencies. ngos and communities as user groups could be the target of capacity-building efforts. ngos may be invited by universities to partner, but plans are often already laid out, so that the ngos may only be involved in executing the plans. nonetheless, all of these ngos are involved, directly or indirectly, in global health research, and they are all canadian or present in canada.
african children are missing this link that allows them to have a chance in trade or to go beyond their villages. is a need to more effectively include ngos in all aspects of health research in order to maximize the potential benefits of research. of october 2001, the coalition included two ngos (csih and cpha) who were part of a lobby to expand the mandate of cihr (canadian institutes of health research) to include global health research in more than one institute. the goal is education for all as laid out by the world conference on education for all[38] and other international conferences. can ngos contribute to the framing of the research questions if we were to support the necessary equity-based research for improving the overall performance of the health system? the examples given below are based on discussions with a limited number of canadian and international ngos: care, world vision canada (wv), ceci (centre d'étude et de coopération internationale), inter pares, hki (helen keller international), and ccic. "ngos give a human face to research, and they are in a good position also to build on indigenous capacity" (interview with s. the interviews and discussions covered the specifics of the implication of the ngo in health research, lessons learned through the experience, and respondents' perceptions on the role of ngos in global health research, and on the strengths and weaknesses of their organization in this regard. academics can also provide guidance and advice on how to prepare research proposals and to carry out research studies, guidance in the preparation of reports and publishing of research results, and training for ngo staff in research methods. good governance is needed to improve collaboration and cooperation at the international, national and regional levels in order to tackle inequity. ngos are directly involved in the administration of research grants. the framework of an ngo network of this sort, the following discrete activities could be envisaged by the lead ngo:To invite ngos to post on a selected website success stories, as well as their experience/opinions/needs/priority research issues, using a template adapted from the one developed for this purpose in the uk. nevertheless, the recent global health research initiative of the coalition of canadian institutions funding global health research is promising as it opens new avenues for research collaboration between the north and the south, and hopefully also between universities and ngos. watchdogs, ngos actively seek breaches of ethics and hold researchers to account when the principles of respect for persons, beneficence and justice are not upheld, a role they are well positioned to assume given their understanding of and links to marginalized groups. keller international (hki) is a technical assistance ngo that is also directly involved in research as part of its mandate.

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