Research proposal on hepatitis b virus

RFA-DK-07-011: Hepatitis B Clinical Research Network (U01)

significance of tests for hbeag and anti-hbe in hbsag positive blood donors. mast ee, weinbaum cm, fiore ae, alter mj, bell bp, finelli l, et al. dr1/2, overlapping cis-elements (basic core promoter/enhancer ii) and open reading frames (polymerase, x and prec/core) are also shown. in the bivariate analysis were included in multivariate logistic regression model. many of the carriers do not realize that they are infected with the virus rendering the hbv to be known as a “silent killer” [4]. the present study, the prevalence of hbsag was high among the age group of 20–24 years followed by 25–29. seroprevalence and predictors of hepatitis b virus infection among pregnant women attending routine antenatal care in arba minch hospital, south ethiopia. seroprevalence of hepatitis b surface antigen and anti hcv antibody and its associated risk factors among pregnant women attending maternity ward of felege hiwot referral hospital, northwest ethiopia: a cross-sectional study. to maintain the quality of laboratory results, standard operating procedures (sops) of the test kit’s manufacturer was followed strictly. anti-hbc igm (delaware biotech, usa) was utilized to investigate acute and chronic hbv infection in hbsag positive individuals. the difference could be attributed to variations in sample size, study period and poor practices of infection prevention strategies. prevalence and risk factors of hepatitis b infection in injection drug users, tehran (2001-2002). but, other reports from nigeria [29]; mauritania [30] and yemen [31] were contradicted with our findings. 47 out of 2552 blood donors were hbsag positive, of whom, only one was positive for anti-hbc igm and the total frequency was 0. the subject area "liver disease and pregnancy" applicable to this article? Reports have shown that 68,600 people die of HBV infection and more than 300,000 deaths due to liver cancer secondary to hepatitis B every year globally. Accordingly we advocate that health education programs on the mode of HBV transmission, high-risk behaviors and methods of preventions should be instituted at antenatal care clinics to raise the awareness of mothers and limit the spread of infection. furthermore, all pregnant women should be screened for hbv, treated if necessary to reduce their viral loads and their children vaccinated at birth with the single-dose hepatitis b vaccine to break the cycle of mother-to-child transmission. hbsag was zero among males in the 25-35 years age group (figure 1). it has 95 beds for inpatient and outpatient health care services including anc for pregnant women. & softwareblast (basic local alignment search tool)blast (stand-alone)cn3dconserved domain search service (cd search)e-utilitiesgenbank: bankitgenbank: sequingenbank: tbl2asngenome protmapgenome workbenchprimer-blastprosplignpubchem structure searchsnp submission toolsplignvector alignment search tool (vast)all data & software resources. some blood tests have been developed to detect these proteins and antibodies (2). prevalence of hepatitis b infection among school children in southeast turkey. Serum was withdrawn for each study subject and used to test for Hepatitis B Surface Antigen (HBsAg) by an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test kit. recent reports demonstrated that 68,600 people die of hbv infection and more than 300,000 deaths due to liver cancer secondary to hepatitis b every year globally [7]. hbsag positive sera were subjected for viral dna extraction using commercial dna extraction kit (genet bio, korea) and hbv pcr using the virus specific primers. pregnant women who had a history of abortion were 10 times more likely of being infected by hbv than pregnant women who had no history of abortion.

RESEARCH ARTICLE Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection and Risk

would like to thank ethiopian red cross society of blood bank organization, for helping us in serological screening of hbv. department of obstetrics & gynecology, university of texas southwestern medical center. b virus (hbv) infection is the most common and serious liver infection in the world. in every district, 9 subdivisions were chosen randomly using proportional population size (pps). the prevalence of hepatitis b virus surface antigen (hbsag) in hyper-endemic, endemic and hypo-endemic areas is more than 8%, 2% to 7% and less than 2%, respectively (3, 7). hbeab had its lowest frequency of 20 percent among individuals older than 60. this finding may be explained as since hepatitis b is blood born virus; blood, semen and other body fluids are common source of infection that sexual contacts serve as a mode of transmission. the principal way of transmission is through blood and blood products., hbv infection is considered to be the 10th leading cause of death (4). regarding the fact that hbv is preventable, such studies may provide a better understanding of the epidemiological pattern of hbv as well as an insight in to the success of vaccination programs in previous years. i, ii, iii and iv represent idealized patterns of commonly observed hbv dna integrants in cellular dna of hbv-related hcc. hbeag, hbeab, and hbcab-igm elisa tests were performed for hbsag-positive samples. (basic local alignment search tool)blast (stand-alone)blast link (blink)conserved domain database (cdd)conserved domain search service (cd search)genome protmaphomologeneprotein clustersall homology resources. (basic local alignment search tool)blast (stand-alone)blast link (blink)conserved domain database (cdd)conserved domain search service (cd search)e-utilitiesprosplignprotein clustersprotein databasereference sequence (refseq)all proteins resources. descriptive statistical tests such as proportion and mean were used to compute the socio-demographic, behavioral and the outcome variable. regional review of hepatitis b and c virus infections among pregnant women in arab and african countries. all patients with rheumatic diseases commencing immunosuppressive therapy should be screened for hepatitis b surface antigen (hbsag); those who are negative for hbsag should be screened for hepatitis b core antibody (hbcab) and hepatitis b surface antibody (hbsab) as well. reports have shown that 68,600 people die of hbv infection and more than 300,000 deaths due to liver cancer secondary to hepatitis b every year globally. prevalence, correlates and pattern of hepatitis b surface antigen in a low resource setting. hbsag rate has been reported for different provinces of iran. a systematic analysis for the global burden of disease study. afterwards, the blood was allowed to clot at room temperature for about 30 minutes as recommended by testing kit’s manufacturer (dialab gmbh, austria). μl of 10xpcr buffer, 20 pmol of forward (5'-cggtaaaaagggactcaagat-3') and reverse (5'-gtggtggacttctctcaattttc-3') primers, 1. discussionthe prevalence of hbsag in middle eastern countries ranges between 2% and 20% (12). our data demonstrated an elevated risk of hbsag infection among older subjects. these include transcriptional activation of cellular growth regulatory genes, modulation of apoptosis and inhibition of nucleotide excision repair of damaged cellular dna.: umare a, seyoum b, gobena t, haile mariyam t (2016) hepatitis b virus infections and associated factors among pregnant women attending antenatal care clinic at deder hospital, eastern ethiopia.

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Cross-sectional study of hepatitis B virus infection in rural

It is also advisable to implement nosocomial infection prevention strategies to prevent the transmissions of HBV through health care related activities such as surgical procedures. the prevalence of hbsag was reported to be 2-7% in iran; therefore, iran was classified as an intermediate hbsag positive area (7). three percent of hbsag-positive patients were also positive for anti-hbc igm. epidemiology of hepatitis b virus infection in the middle east. a ten ml blood sample was taken from each subject. epidemiology of viral hepatitis among iranian population--a viral marker study. screening for hbsag was performed at red cross society blood bank laboratory using the dialab® hbsag elisa kit (dialab gmbh, austria) that can detect all hbv genotypes and subtypes. data were collected by face to face interview using a pre-tested questionnaire. our study demonstrated that the prevalence of hbsag in mashhad was 1.) more likely to develop hbv infection compared with those having single partner. in the next stage, serum was separated and hbsag prevalence was determined using elisa (delaware biotech, usa). these might be due to the small sample size and few numbers of cases (positive for hbsag) in our study. of genomic structural variation (dbvar)database of genotypes and phenotypes (dbgap)database of single nucleotide polymorphisms (dbsnp)snp submission toolall variation resources. the prevalence of hbv infection increased with educational status of study participants throughout the entire sub-category.: pmc3745755the prevalence of hepatitis b virus infection in mashhad, iran: a population-based studymohammad taghi shakeri,1 bahareh foghanian,2 hosein nomani,2 majid ghayour-mobarhan,3 maryam sadat nabavinia,4 sina rostami,5 mitra ahadi,6 and zahra meshkat7,*1department of biostatistics, public health school, mashhad university of medical sciences, mashhad, ir iran2microbiology and virology research center, mashhad university of medical sciences, mashhad, ir iran3biochemistry of nutritional research center, faculty of medicine, mashhad university of medical sciences, mashhad, ir iran4department of biotechnology, school of pharmacy, mashhad university of medical sciences, mashhad, ir iran5department of biology, faculty of sciences, ferdowsi university of mashhad, mashhad, ir iran6department of internal medicine, ghaem hospital, mashhad university of medical sciences, mashhad, ir iran7women's health research center, mashhad university of medical sciences, mashhad, ir iran*corresponding author: zahra meshkat, women's health research center, mashhad university of medical sciences, mashhad, ir iran. b virus (hbv) infection is a serious public health problem worldwide. of hbsag positivity among men and women according to their age groupsfigure 2. the tube was centrifuged at 800g for 20 minutes; serum was separated; transferred into cryo-tube and finally stored in a freezer at -20°c..jp, satoshi mochida department of gastroenterology and hepatology, faculty of medicine, saitama medical university,Saitama, japan, toshihide mimura department of rheumatology and applied immunology, faculty of medicine, saitama medical university,Saitama, japan, takao koike ntt sapporo medical center,Hokkaido, japan & nobuyuki miyasaka department of medicine and rheumatology, graduate school of medical and dental sciences, tokyo medical and dental university,Tokyo, japan; global center of excellence program, international research center for molecular science in tooth and bone diseases,Published online: 22 nov 2013. continuous surveillance and periodic population-based studies are essential to monitor the prevalence of hbv infection in mashhad in the future. epidemiology of hepatitis b and hepatitis c virus infections in pregnant women in sana’a, yemen. prevalence of hbv among pregnant women attending anc clinic at deder hospital, eastern ethiopia 2015 (n = 318). according to our findings, consistent with some previous data (14-16), the proportion of men positive for hbsag was higher, while other studies did not suggest any strong correlation between gender and hbsag prevalence (17). hepatitis b vaccine in national immunization schedule: a preventive step in india. fact our study demonstrated that history of abortion, nose piercing, surgical procedure and history of multiple sexual partners were significant predictors of hbv infection. similar results were reported in dessie [14] and bahir dar, ethiopia [15]. but screening for other serological markers such as anti-hbs and anti-hbc antibodies would have great potential to determine the overall prevalence of hbv infection.

Hepatitis B Research Proposal & Case Histories - Vaccine Choice

Hepatitis B virus and hepatocellular carcinoma.

the prevalence of hbeag among hbsag individuals seemed to be lower in our study in comparison with similar studies (16, 18-22). likewise, similar numerical problems were reported in other comparable studies [14, 20]. seroepidemiology of hepatitis b virus infection in khuzestan province, southwest of iran. & mapsdatabase of genomic structural variation (dbvar)genbank: tbl2asngenomegenome projectgenome protmapgenome workbenchinfluenza virusmap viewernucleotide databasepopsetprosplignsequence read archive (sra)spligntrace archiveall genomes & maps resources. we would also like to express our gratitude to staff of deder hospital, especially for laboratory and antenatal care department staff for their kind support during data collection. seroprevalence of hepatitis b and hepatitis c virus infection in iraq. burden of disease (gbd) mortality and causes of death collaborators. and recommendationsthe overall prevalence of hbv infection among pregnant women in deder, eastern ethiopia is high-intermediate (6. administering hbv vaccination to 90% of newborns within 24 hours from birth would prevent 84% of global hbv-related deaths [9]. an estimated 350 million people are chronic carriers of this virus, of whom, more than 620,000 die from liver-related diseases annually. hemodialysis, shared needles among drug abusers, dental surgery, receiving blood or blood products, cupping, tattooing, ear and nose piercing practices and sexual exposure to hbv can elevate the risk of transmission (6). serological screening was done in the same day of arrival to control pre-analytical problem that could be occurred due to multiple freeze-thaw cycles of the serum..A proposal for management of rheumatic disease patients with hepatitis b virus infection receiving immunosuppressive therapymasayoshi harigai department of pharmacovigilance, graduate school of medical and dental sciences, tokyo medical and dental university,1-5-45 yushima, bunkyo-ku, tokyo 113-8519, japan; department of medicine and rheumatology, graduate school of medical and dental sciences, tokyo medical and dental university,Tokyo, japancorrespondencemharigai. a possible explanation could be mutant forms which were not evaluated in our study. commentshow to join pubmed commonshow to cite this comment:Ncbi > literature > pubmed. due to that hiv and hbv share the same modes of transmission; the likelihood of hbv/hiv co-infection is anticipated. plos one 11(11):Backgroundhepatitis b infection is caused by the hepatitis b virus (hbv). of hepatitis b virus (hbv) and de novo hbv hepatitis in patients with rheumatic diseases given intensive and long-term immunosuppressive therapy with or without biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs is of great concern, especially in regions where the virus is endemic, including japan.% of prevalence which were reported from dessie [14], felege hiwot [21], arba minch [22] and bahir dar city [15], respectively. if serum hbv dna becomes positive, patients should receive nucleoside analog treatment as soon as possible, while ongoing immunosuppressive therapy should be continued to avoid severe or fulminant hepatitis development.%, implying that it is high-intermediate endemic area, which is important public health issue needs to be addressed. binary logistic regression analysis was used to determine the association between explanatory variables and the outcome variable with odds ratio at 95% ci. guidelines for the prevention, care and treatment of persons with chronic hepatitis b infection. elisa tests for hbeag, hbeab, and hbcab igm were positive in one (2. the prevalence and risk factors for hepatitis b surface ag positivity in pregnant women in eastern region of ghana. however, only supportive cares were offered because treatment guideline and specific drugs for hbv infections are not available in most health facilities of ethiopia. it is an enveloped dna virus that infects the liver and causes hepatocellular necrosis and inflammation [1].

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The Prevalence of Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Mashhad, Iran: A

to ascertain a better benefit–risk balance for immunosuppressive therapy for patients with rheumatic diseases, the japan college of rheumatology developed this proposal. all hbsag positive mothers were referred to physician and followed by testing their liver function in hospital’s laboratory. for health policy/practice/research/medical education in order to provide information to reduce the incidence and prevalence of hepatitis b infection in the community. this variation might be due to differences in sampling method, geographical variation, differences in cultural practices, sexual behavior and practices, and differences in the test methods employed to detect hbv infection.. objectivesthe aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of hepatitis b virus among the general population of mashhad, iran and also to evaluate anti-hbe and hbe-ag in hbsag positive subjects. vaccination is considered to be the most effective way to control the spread of hbv (10). (19) and mcmahon (16), which did not support the increase in hbeab prevalence among older subjects. these differences could be due to variations in sample size, duration of study and safety precautions being taken. an estimated 3% of the iranian population were hbsag carriers; varying between 1. one hundred seventy (53%) were housewives and the others were teachers and merchants by occupation (table 1). moreover, we could not determine the extent of perinatal transmission of hbv; because the prevalence of hbeag or the viral load was not assessed among hbsag sero-positive pregnant mothers due to lack of reagent kits and resource constraints. all study participants were informed about the study and assured about the confidentiality, protection and anonymity of data.: abstractformatsummarysummary (text)abstractabstract (text)medlinexmlpmid listapplysend tochoose destinationfileclipboardcollectionse-mailordermy bibliographycitation managerformatsummary (text)abstract (text)medlinexmlpmid listcsvcreate file1 selected item: 11454100formatsummarysummary (text)abstractabstract (text)medlinexmlpmid listmesh and other datae-mailsubjectadditional texte-maildidn't get the message? hepatitis b and human immunodeficiency virus co-infection among pregnant women in resource-limited high endemic setting, addis ababa, ethiopia: implications for prevention and control measures. hepatitis b virus and hepatitis c virus in pregnant sudanese women. Methods and Findings A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted among pregnant women who attended antenatal care clinic (ANC) for routine pregnancy check-up between 18 March 2015 and 15 May 2015. sero-prevalence of hepatitis b virus infection and its risk factors among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic at aminu kano teaching hospital, kano, nigeria. prevalence of hepatitis b surface antigen (hbsag) among visitors of shashemene general hospital voluntary counseling and testing center. using survey based questioners of ethiopian blood donors, one study indicated that 8% and second 14. for serum hbv dna negative patients with resolved infection, careful monthly monitoring using serum levels of aspartate and alanine aminotransferases and hbv dna is recommended during and at least 12 months after withdrawal of immunosuppressive therapy. higher prevalence, 8% (9/112), was observed in the age group of 20–24 years. however, it is lower than earlier survey of ethiopian blood donors (8%) [12] and 14.. merat s, rezvan h, nouraie m, jamali a, assari s, abolghasemi h, et al. recent studies have shown that the changing epidemiology of hepatitis b virus infection in iran is, at least to some extent, due to hbv vaccination as a national program in routine neonate care. history of abortion, nose piercing, surgical procedures and multiple sexual partners were significantly associated with this viral infection. y, bonsu g, ampaw aa, mills gn, nimo ja, park jk,et al. milliliters (ml) of venous blood was collected using plain tube by an experienced laboratory technologist from each study participant.

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PLOS ONE: Hepatitis B Virus Infections and Associated Factors

aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of hbv infection in mashhad, north-east of iran. the largest number of people living with chronic hbv live in the western pacific region (over 95 million) followed by the african region (over 75 million) [6]. different reports showed that the associated factors with hbv infections varied from region to region [14, 15, 16, 17]. all images (3)free textfigure 1global maps showing the close similarity between the geographical distributions of chronic hepatitis b virus infection and hepatocellular carcinoma. this study very important predictor variables are significantly associated with the hbv infection despite high odds ratio and wide confidence intervals were observed statistically. the prevalence of hepatitis b surface antigen and anti-hepatitis b core antibody in iran: a population-based study. furthermore, all pregnant women should be screened for hbv, treated if necessary to reduce their viral loads and their children vaccinated at birth with the single-dose hepatitis b vaccine to break the cycle of mother-to-child transmission. analysisblast (basic local alignment search tool)blast (stand-alone)blast link (blink)conserved domain search service (cd search)genome protmapgenome workbenchinfluenza virusprimer-blastprosplignsplignall sequence analysis resources. proposal for management of rheumatic disease patients with hepatitis b virus infection receiving immunosuppressive therapy. one of the possible reasons could be the drawback of secondary data source because hiv test results of women were collected from the antenatal care clinic’s registration book. therefore, this study focused to determine the prevalence of hbv infection and associated factors among pregnant women attended antenatal care clinic in deder hospital, eastern ethiopia.. gov'treviewmesh termsanimalscarcinoma, hepatocellular/virology*cytopathogenic effect, viralgene expressionhepatitis b surface antigens/immunologyhepatitis b vaccines/therapeutic usehepatitis b virus/geneticshepatitis b virus/immunologyhepatitis b virus/pathogenicity*hepatitis b, chronic/complicationshepatitis b, chronic/prevention & controlhumansliver neoplasms/virology*treatment outcomeviral proteins/physiologyvirus integration/physiologysubstanceshepatitis b surface antigenshepatitis b vaccinesviral proteinslinkout - more resourcesfull text sourceswileyovid technologies, inc. prevalence, risk factors and molecular epidemiology of hepatitis b and hepatitis delta virus in pregnant women and in patients in mauritania. despite the availability of an effective vaccine against hepatitis b virus, its infection remains a major public health problem throughout the world. & expressionbiosystemsdatabase of genotypes and phenotypes (dbgap)e-utilitiesgenegene expression omnibus (geo) database gene expression omnibus (geo) datasetsgene expression omnibus (geo) profilesgenome workbenchhomologenemap vieweronline mendelian inheritance in man (omim)refseqgeneunigeneall genes & expression resources. the subject area "hepatitis b virus" applicable to this article? pregnant women who had history of multiple sexual partners were about 16 times more likely of being infected than those had no history of multiple sexual partners (table 3). it is also advisable to implement nosocomial infection prevention strategies to prevent the transmissions of hbv through health care related activities such as surgical procedures. alavian sm, hajarizadeh b, -asl ma, kabir a, lankarani kb. as a result, by definition, this city falls into the hypo-endemic category. the prevalence of hepatitis b virus infection in mashhad, iran: a population-based study. women with a history of abortion had a chance of 11 times (aor10. hbv carriers and serum hbv dna positive patients with resolved infection should receive nucleoside analog as soon as possible, prior to commencing immunosuppressive therapy. to facilitate proper management of patients with hbv infection, collaboration between rheumatologists and hepatologists is strongly encouraged. variables included; hbv infection, age, gender, acute hbv infection, chronic hbv infection and the function of hbv infection. according to established criterion, the prevalence of hbsag among pregnant women in this study area can be classified as “high inter-mediate” endemicity area [1].%, implying that it is high-intermediate endemic area, which is important public health issue needs to be addressed.

Sero-prevalence and risk factors of hepatitis B virus and human

therefore, follow-up studies are crucial in order to achieve more satisfactory findings and better organized health programs. considering both genders, the prevalence in the total population was 31%. the national expanded hbv vaccination program was implemented in 1993 and 2007 for newborns and adults, respectively (4, 8). the possible explanation for this finding could be that women in these age groups are more sexually active and they may have higher chance of multiple sexual partners. integration of hbv dna into the genome of hepatocytes occurs commonly, although integration at cellular sites that are important for regulation of hepatocyte proliferation appears to be a rare event. regarding each gender, the prevalence of hbeag among hbsag-positive females was 6. the magnitude of the problem is not yet addressed in many parts of ethiopia that include the eastern region. sex- and age-specific prevalences of hbeag and anti-hbe among hbsag carriers with or without liver function abnormalities in okinawa, japan. in our country, programs such as behavioral interventions, syringe-distribution and vaccination, particularly among male prisoners, are suggested to limit the spread of the virus (11). sex difference in chronic hepatitis b virus infection: studies of serum hbeag and alanine aminotransferase levels in 10,431 asymptomatic chinese hbsag carriers. statistical analysis was performed with pearson's chi-square and the data was analyzed by spss v. similar results were reported from jimma [27], arba minch [22], addis ababa [20] and dessie, ethiopia [14]. Data were collected by face to face interview using a pre-tested questionnaire. Furthermore, all pregnant women should be screened for HBV, treated if necessary to reduce their viral loads and their children vaccinated at birth with the single-dose hepatitis B vaccine to break the cycle of mother-to-child transmission. to clipboardadd to collectionsorder articlesadd to my bibliographygenerate a file for use with external citation management software. centralother literature sourcescos scholar universemedicalhepatitis - genetic allianceliver cancer - medlineplus health informationpubmed commons home. women who are infected with hbv can vertically transmit the infection to their infants. sero-prevalence of hbv and hcv infections among pregnant women attending antenatal care clinic at dessie referral hospital, ethiopia. necroinflammatory hepatic disease, which often accompanies chronic hbv infection, may contribute indirectly to hepatocyte transformation in a number of ways, including by facilitating hbv dna integration, predisposing to the acquisition of cellular mutations and generating mutagenic oxygen reactive species. the cycles were followed by a 5 min extension at 72°c and the pcr product was visualized on a 2% agarose gel by green-viewer staining. another study carried in dessie [14] and bahir dar city [15] reported the prevalence of 4. replication occurs in the liver; however, specific proteins and antibodies of the virus are present in the blood of infected individuals. click the target next to the incorrect subject area and let us know. the same results were observed for males and females when considered separately. interestingly we found that factors such as educational status, tattooing, home delivery, blood transfusion and history of tooth extraction were not statistically associated with hbv infection that are consistent with the findings reported in nigeria [26] and in sudan [32] but inconsistent with other studies [14, 15, 33]. this study, history of surgical procedure and nose piercing were statistically associated with hbv infection. thus, determining the sero-prevalence and associated factors with hbv infection in different geographical setting is paramount to design appropriate preventive measures.

Sero-Prevalence of Hepatitis B Virus Infection among Blood Donors

factors such as history of abortion, nose piercing, surgical procedure and history of multiple sexual partners were significantly associated with hbv infection. the age of the study participants range between 15 and 40 years with a mean age of 25 years. perinatal and early childhood transmissions are the main routs of hbv infection in high and intermediate endemic areas [8]. similarly, history of surgical procedure was significantly associated with hbv infection (aor 13./support this study was supported by mashhad university of medical sciences, mashhad, iran (grant no. the trend indicated a strong association between age and hbsag infection. meanwhile, after the purpose of the study was explained to the subjects, they were asked to participate voluntarily in the study. although hcc is a malignancy with a poor prognosis, the availability of an effective vaccine against hbv infection, and its inclusion in the expanded programme of immunization of many countries, augurs well for the eventual elimination of hbv-associated hcc. the subject area "surgical and invasive medical procedures" applicable to this article? 2cohesive overlap and surrounding regions of hepatitis b virion dna with commonly observed hbv dna integration patterns. the prevalence of hbv infection is high in the western pacific and south-east asia; however, a variable pattern has been observed in different regions of the middle-east (4). next, samples were collected haphazardly from blocks in every subdivision. serum was withdrawn for each study subject and used to test for hepatitis b surface antigen (hbsag) by an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) test kit. sample size was statistically calculated based on single population proportion formula by taking 7. it is also advisable to implement nosocomial infection prevention strategies to prevent the transmissions of hbv through health care related activities such as surgical procedures. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between explanatory variables and outcome variable. hbv infection is one of a serious public health problem worldwide and it is 50–100 times more contagious than hiv [2, 3]. recent studies have shown that the prevalence of hbv is remarkably varied in different provinces of iran. thus, to decrease the prevalence of this viral infection, we recommend that health education programs on the mode of hbv transmission, high-risk behaviors and methods of preventions should be instituted at antenatal care clinics to raise the awareness of mothers. & tutorialsncbi education pagencbi handbookncbi help manualncbi newsall training & tutorials resources. anti-hbe and hbe-ag elisa tests (delaware biotech, usa) were carried out to assess the replication of hbv in infected individuals. & medicinebookshelfdatabase of genotypes and phenotypes (dbgap)genetic testing registryinfluenza virusmap vieweronline mendelian inheritance in man (omim)pubmedpubmed central (pmc)pubmed clinical queriesrefseqgeneall genetics & medicine resources. written consent was obtained from each study participant prior to data collection and they participated voluntarily in the study. this finding suggests that the vertical transmission of hbv infection may be a serious public health problem in deder district. but, in this study, positive hiv test result was not observed in all study participants. protocol for assessing prevalence of hepatitis b infection in antenatal patients.-utilitiesjournals in ncbi databasesmesh databasencbi handbookncbi help manualncbi newspubmedpubmed central (pmc)pubmed clinical queriespubmed healthall literature resources.

RFA-DK-07-011: Hepatitis B Clinical Research Network (U01)

A proposal for management of rheumatic disease patients with

mcmahon bj, schoenberg s, bulkow l, wainwright rb, fitzgerald ma, parkinson aj, et al. however, data on the epidemiology of hbv infection in ethiopia are limited, though few studies were conducted in the northern regions of the country. study obtained ethical clearance from institutional health research ethics review committee (ihrerc) of the college of health and medical sciences of haramaya university. the effects of hbx are mediated by interaction with cellular proteins and activation of cell signalling pathways. this study, we found that the prevalence of hbsag among study participants was 6. three areas were proposed on the basis of hbv prevalence in the world (3, 7). hbv prevalence in iran was reported to be 1-2% in 1977 while a rise to 2. a study conducted on blood donors suggested that approximately 35% of iranians have been in contact with hbv and 3% of them become chronic carriers (13), yet, this study was not a suitable indicator of the total population. occurrence of hbsag and its antibody in ethiopian blood donors. & structuresbiosystemscn3dconserved domain database (cdd)conserved domain search service (cd search)structure (molecular modeling database)vector alignment search tool (vast)all domains & structures resources. these all should be considered as the limitations of this study. of multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that few predictor variables showed statistically significant association with hbv infections. toall how tochemicals & bioassaysdna & rnadata & softwaredomains & structuresgenes & expressiongenetics & medicinegenomes & mapshomologyliteratureproteinssequence analysistaxonomytraining & tutorialsvariationabout ncbi accesskeysmy ncbisign in to ncbisign out. prevalence of chronic hepatitis b infection in iran: a review article. seroprevalence of hepatitis b surface antigenemia and its effects on hematological parameters in pregnant women in osogbo, nigeria.: 11454100 pmcid: pmc2517704 [indexed for medline] free pmc articleshareimages from this publication. hepatitis b virus (hbv) infection is a major global cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (hcc). 3hbx activation of nf-κb and map kinase and jak/stat cellular signalling pathways. however, twenty of them were excluded because they refused to give blood sample and disagreed to participate in the study. we noted that the lowest prevalence of hbeab among hbsag-positive subjects was in the age group 35-40. however, the immunization policy was updated in 2007 which enrolled childhood immunization against hbv in a penta-valent form at the age of 6, 10 and 14 weeks after birth [10]. © 2013, iranian red crescent medical journalthis is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the creative commons attribution license, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. History of abortion, nose piercing, surgical procedures and multiple sexual partners were significantly associated with this viral infection. backgroundhepatitis b virus (hbv) is classified in hepadnaviridae family and has a circular, partially double-stranded dna (1). ethiopia, expanded programme on immunization (epi) was launched in 1980 with the objective of achieving universal child immunization by 1990. prevalence and significance of sexually transmitted diseases among women attending clinics in addis ababa. hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted among pregnant women who attended antenatal care clinic (anc) for routine pregnancy check-up between 18 march 2015 and 15 may 2015.

study was conducted at deder hospital located in deder town, east hararghe zone, oromia regional state, eastern ethiopia that is about 458 km from the capital city of ethiopia, addis ababa. is among the countries with high burden of hiv infection and it is located in a region classified as high endemic area for hbv [34]. it has been noticed that the risk of hbv transmission decreases in a setting where there is a periodic perinatal hbv screening, immunoprophylaxis given to infants born to hbv infected mothers and hepatitis b vaccine administered both to high risk mothers and to all newborn infants [11]. chronic carriers of hbv have an elevated risk of developing cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (hcc) which leads to death of an estimated 0. tavakkoli h, mir-nasseri mm, poustchi h, afshar p, motalebi mn, mohammadkhani a, et al. having history of nose piercing were more likely to be infected (aor 8. antenatal screening for hbsag to all pregnant women and vaccination of their babies at birth has been recommended widely, yet it is not a routine practice in most health settings of ethiopia [10]. information on socio-demographic and other pertinent data was collected by trained data collectors using a pre-tested standard questionnaire adapted from the who “protocol for assessment of hepatitis b infection in antenatal patients” [18]. study determined that the prevalence of hbv infection among pregnant women was 6. statistical association of predictor variables with hbv infection, among pregnant women attending anc clinic at deder hospital, eastern ethiopia, 2015, (n = 318). one significant limitation of our study was not having enough data on medical history of patients such as previous infection with blood-borne diseases like htlv and hiv, which are prevalent in our region. risk factors for hepatitis b virus infection among pregnant women in lagos, nigeria., it is estimated that 240 million people are chronically infected with hepatitis b [5]. r, khanna p, prinja s, rajput m, chawla s, bairwa m. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a serious public health problem worldwide. a comprehensive immunization strategy to eliminate transmission of hepatitis b virus infection in the united states: recommendations of the advisory committee on immunization practices (acip) part ii: immunization of adults. global, regional and national age-sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990–2013. cite this cite this paper as shakeri mt, foghanian b, nomani h, ghayour-mobarhan m, nabavinia ms, rostami s, et al. results of some hbv pcr tests with specific viral primers are given in figure 2. it seems that the national expanded vaccination program was successful, at least among the younger generation, to control the spread of hepatitis b virus. the samples were transported to the red cross society blood bank laboratory, harar branch, ethiopia in a cold box for serological test. seroprevalence of hbsag and its risk factors among pregnant women in jimma, southwest ethiopia. was estimated that over 5 million people are living with chronic hbv infection among the general population of ethiopia [6].. materials and methodsbased on multistage cluster-sampling method, 3198 people were recruited from march 2010 to november 2011 for the study of hbv infection in mashhad. the role of anti-hbc igm in screening of blood donors. accordingly we advocate that health education programs on the mode of hbv transmission, high-risk behaviors and methods of preventions should be instituted at antenatal care clinics to raise the awareness of mothers and limit the spread of infection. these few studies indicated that hepatitis b infection among pregnant women raise a public health concern.

according to the sequence of their registration, they were allowed to enter into the anc room for routine follow-up care one by one. seroprevalence of hiv-1, hbv, htlv-1 and treponema pallidum among pregnant women in a rural hospital in southern ethiopia. positive and negative controls were run along with each batch of elisa test kit. a mathematical model to estimate global hepatitis b disease burden and vaccination impact. binary logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between explanatory variables and outcome variable. seroprevalence of hepatitis b infection during pregnancy and risk of perinatal transmission. other possible causes for these huge statistical results such as confounding effects, multicollinearity and the validity of regression model were addressed at the stage of study design and during data analysis.% of sexually transmitted infections among women attending antenatal care were accounted for hbv infection [16]. similar findings reported in addis ababa, ethiopia [28]; and in nigeria [29]. the data displayed a statistically significant correlation between gender and hbsag frequency, with the prevalence being higher among males (p = 0. for the purpose of this study, only hbsag was determined which tells about active infection rather than total prevalence. showed that in three provinces of iran, tehran, hormozgan and golestan, the frequency of hbsag was 2. seroprevalence and transmission of hepatitis b virus among delivering women and their new born in selected health facilities, addis ababa, ethiopia: a cross-sectional study. following the registration of 3198 individuals in the study, informed consents, which were approved by the ethic’s committee of mums, were obtained, and a questionnaire was filled for each individual. dow bc, macvarish i, barr a, crawford rj, mitchell r. our data showed the prevalence of hbv is low in our region. the prevalence of hbv infection was seemingly low in mashhad; however, an upward trend was observed in older subjects probably due to successful hbv vaccination coverage in the younger generation. resourceschemicals & bioassaysbiosystemspubchem bioassaypubchem compoundpubchem structure searchpubchem substanceall chemicals & bioassays resources. sero-prevalence and risk factors of hepatitis b virus and human immunodeficiency virus infection among pregnant women in bahir dar city, northwest ethiopia. due to the vaccination program, prevalence of hbv, particularly among the younger generation, is reported to have declined in recent years in iran.% prevalence of hbv infection from previous study [16], desired precision of 3%, a 95% confidence level and 10% non- response rate. this high incidence of infection could be attributed to poor practices of infection prevention control during abortion and related activities. last but not least, we are grateful to all our study participants and also to sciencedit-dw for editing our manuscript. we neither tested for anti-hbc (igm), nor followed up women to determine if they had a chronic or an acute infection. this study aims to determine the prevalence of hbv infection and associated factors among pregnant women. & rnablast (basic local alignment search tool)blast (stand-alone)e-utilitiesgenbankgenbank: bankitgenbank: sequingenbank: tbl2asngenome workbenchinfluenza virusnucleotide databasepopsetprimer-blastprosplignreference sequence (refseq)refseqgenesequence read archive (sra)spligntrace archiveunigeneall dna & rna resources. variations in hbv genome sequences may be important in hepatocarcinogenesis, although their significance has not yet been completely elucidated.

Thesis on food security

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