Articles on Women and Religion

she draws a surprising new portrait of mary magdalene and outlines the stories of previously unknown early christian women. many translations, including the amplified bible, rheims new testament, new american standard bible, and the new international version simply picked the letter "s" out of thin air. other women were ordained as priests in fifth century italy and sicily (gelasius, epistle 14. when jesus was arrested, women remained firm, even when his male disciples are said to have fled, and they accompanied him to the foot of the cross. letters of paul - dated to the middle of the first century ce - and his casual greetings to acquaintances offer fascinating and solid information about many jewish and gentile women who were prominent in the movement. she was indeed an influential figure, but as a prominent disciple and leader of one wing of the early christian movement that promoted women's leadership. threatened with rape, prostitution, and twice put in the ring as a martyr, she persevered in her faith and her chastity. these elements also provide an important location for discussing some aspects of early christian women's spiritual lives: their exercise of leadership, their ideals, their attraction to christianity, and what gave meaning to their self-identity as christians. by placing the teaching of the gospel of mary side-by-side with the theology of the corinthian women prophets, the montanist women's oracles, thunder perfect mind, and perpetua's prison diary, it is possible to discern shared views about teaching and practice that may exemplify some of the contents of women's theology:Jesus was understood primarily as a teacher and mediator of wisdom rather than as ruler and judge. other information about her is more fantastic, she is repeatedly portrayed as a visionary and leader of the early movement. according to the qur'an, “men are the maintainers of women because allah has made them to excel others and because they spend out of their property, the good women are therefore obedient, guarding the unseen as allah has guarded; and (also) those on whose part you feel desertion, admonish them, and leave them alone in the sleeping-places and beat them; then if they obey you, do not seek a way against them…” 13. his request acknowledges that mary was preeminent among women in jesus' esteem, and the question itself suggests that jesus gave her private instruction.; mary and martha, the sisters who offered him hospitality in bethany. women held offices and played significant roles in group worship. she enters into the lower world and the body in order to awaken the innermost spiritual being of the soul to the truth of its power and freedom, to awaken the spiritual power it needs to escape the counterfeit powers that enslave the soul in ignorance, poverty, and the drunken sleep of spiritual deadness, and to overcome illegitimate political and sexual domination. christian community, the unity, power, and perfection of the spirit are present now, not just in some future time.

Role of women in religion essay

she cut her hair, donned men's clothing, and took up the duties of a missionary apostle. montanist christians ordained women as presbyters and bishops, and women held the title of prophet. mary agrees and gives an account of "secret" teaching she received from the lord in a vision. from the beginning, jewish women disciples, including mary magdalene, joanna, and susanna, had accompanied jesus during his ministry and supported him out of their private means (luke 8:1-3). books of the old testament, and variations, are recognized by the jewish, christian, and muslim faiths. discoveries of new texts from the dry sands of egypt, along with sharpened critical insight, have now proven that this portrait of mary is entirely inaccurate. he greets prisca, junia, julia, and nereus' sister, who worked and traveled as missionaries in pairs with their husbands or brothers (romans 16:3, 7, 15). their oracles were collected and published, including the account of a vision in which christ appeared to the prophet in the form of a woman and "put wisdom" in her (epiphanius, panarion 49. the social structure and implications of gender equality in time when the bible was written are the likely cause for the misinterpretation in the new testament. women's stories could be rewritten and alternative traditions could be invented. the gospel of philip, mary magdalene is mentioned as one of three marys "who always walked with the lord" and as his companion (59. paul, for example, greets a deacon named phoebe (romans 16:1) and assumes that women are praying and prophesying during worship (i corinthians 11). he tells us that prisca and her husband risked their lives to save his. once this initial, erroneous identification was secured, mary magdalene could be associated with every unnamed sinful woman in the gospels, including the adulteress in john 8:1-11 and the syro-phoenician woman with her five and more "husbands" in john 4:7-30. needs to be emphasized that the formal elimination of women from official roles of institutional leadership did not eliminate women's actual presence and importance to the christian tradition, although it certainly seriously damaged their capacity to contribute fully. she tells of the support and fellowship among the confessors in prison, including other women.

African Women, Religion, And Health: Essays in Honor of Mercy

.When the bible is properly interpreted it teaches equality in men and women in various books, such as in galatians 3:28,“'there is neither jew nor greek, there is neither slave nor free, there is neither male nor female; for you are all one in christ jesus. reading religious scriptures, one should consider that most currently was written by mortal men and tailored to suit the societies concerns of the day and are not in their first language. her speech lets the hearers transverse the distance between political exploitation and empowerment, between the experience of degradation and the knowledge of infinite self-worth, between despair and peace. this meant that potentially women (and men) could exercise leadership on the basis of spiritual achievement apart from gender status and without conformity to established social gender roles. were also prominent as martyrs and suffered violently from torture and painful execution by wild animals and paid gladiators. social injustice and human suffering are seen to be integral to spiritual life. she obeys and is thus the first to announce the resurrection and to play the role of an apostle, although the term is not specifically used of her. of works by and about women is making it possible to begin to reconstruct some of the theological views of early christian women. beginning with the creation of adam and then eve, as his helpmate. king is professor of new testament studies and the history of ancient christianity at harvard university in the divinity school. the most numerous clear cases of women's leadership, however, are offered by prophets: mary magdalene, the corinthian women, philip's daughters, ammia of philadelphia, philumene, the visionary martyr perpetua, maximilla, priscilla (prisca), and quintilla. her speech lets the hearers transverse the distance between political exploitation and empowerment, between the experience of degradation and the knowledge of infinite self-worth, between despair and peace. the vision is given in the form of a dialogue between the lord and mary; it is an extensive account that takes up seven out of the eighteen pages of the work. their oracles were collected and published, including the account of a vision in which christ appeared to the prophet in the form of a woman and "put wisdom" in her (epiphanius, panarion 49. in it, she records her testimony before the local roman ruler and her defiance of her father's pleas that she recant. when all the other disciples are weeping and frightened, she alone remains steadfast in her faith because she has grasped and appropriated the salvation offered in jesus' teachings.

Women In Ancient Christianity | From Jesus To Christ - The First

mormons, mormon feminists and moderates: religious diversity and the latter day saints church. his request acknowledges that mary was preeminent among women in jesus' esteem, and the question itself suggests that jesus gave her private instruction. luke 10:38-42, jesus taught mary, sister of martha and luke 8:1-3 describes the inner circle of jesus' followers: 12 male disciples and an unspecified number female supporters (mary magdalene, joanna, susanna and "many others. according to one story, an unnamed gentile woman taught jesus that the ministry of god is not limited to particular groups and persons, but belongs to all who have faith (mark 7:24-30; matthew 15:21-28). her lively and somewhat fabulous story is recorded in the second century acts of thecla. threatened with rape, prostitution, and twice put in the ring as a martyr, she persevered in her faith and her chastity. woman's identity and spirituality could be developed apart from her roles as wife and mother (or slave), whether she actually withdrew from those roles or not. the prophets prisca and quintilla inspired a christian movement in second century asia minor (called the new prophecy or montanism) that spread around the mediterranean and lasted for at least four centuries. very good bibliographic essay of recent writings on the topic of women and religion by the institute for the study of evangelicalism's women and twentieth-century protestantism project. story of sarah and abraham seems to hit all the negative female themes but also gives sarah more power than is typically held during the time. she cut her hair, donned men's clothing, and took up the duties of a missionary apostle. here again mary is included among those special disciples to whom jesus entrusted his most elevated teaching, and she takes a role in the preaching of the gospel. the most numerous clear cases of women's leadership, however, are offered by prophets: mary magdalene, the corinthian women, philip's daughters, ammia of philadelphia, philumene, the visionary martyr perpetua, maximilla, priscilla (prisca), and quintilla. woman's identity and spirituality could be developed apart from her roles as wife and mother (or slave), whether she actually withdrew from those roles or not. as women historians entered the field in record numbers, they brought with them new questions, developed new methods, and sought for evidence of women's presence in neglected texts and exciting new findings. for this act, inspired by woman, mankind was forever punished and expelled from paradise.

An Essay To Revive the Antient Education of Gentlewomen, in

she obeys and is thus the first to announce the resurrection and to play the role of an apostle, although the term is not specifically used of her. much later, sarah did conceive a child and told abraham to send hagar and his eldest son, ishmael away. she is portrayed as a prophetic visionary and as a leader among the disciples. this gospel lets us hear an alternative voice to the one dominant in canonized works like i timothy, which tried to silence women and insist that their salvation lies in bearing children. a series of spectacular 19th and 20th century discoveries of christian texts in egypt dating to the second and third century have yielded a treasury of new information. the prophets prisca and quintilla inspired a christian movement in second century asia minor (called the new prophecy or montanism) that spread around the mediterranean and lasted for at least four centuries. social injustice and human suffering are seen to be integral to spiritual life." the strength of this literary tradition makes it possible to suggest that historically mary was a prophetic visionary and leader within one sector of the early christian movement after the death of jesus. her lively and somewhat fabulous story is recorded in the second century acts of thecla.; mary and martha, the sisters who offered him hospitality in bethany. he consistently treated women and men as equals and, in doing so, violated numerous old testament regulations. while her teachings do not go unchallenged, in the end the gospel of mary affirms both the truth of her teachings and her authority to teach the male disciples. for example, only a few names of women were widely known: mary, the mother of jesus; mary magdalene, his disciple and the first witness to the. he tells us that prisca and her husband risked their lives to save his. one example is when, in romans 16:7, paul refers to a male apostle, andronicus and a female apostle, lunia, as "outstanding among the apostles" (niv) the amplified bible translates this passage as "they are men held in high esteem among the apostles. when all the other disciples are weeping and frightened, she alone remains steadfast in her faith because she has grasped and appropriated the salvation offered in jesus' teachings.

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the female role and relationship with god is defined by the various books of the old and new testaments, the reported actions of jesus christ, and finally the qur'an. if we look to these elements, we are able to discern important contributions of women to early christian theology and praxis. she actively relinquishes her female roles as mother, daughter, and sister in favor of defining her identity solely in spiritual terms. a series of spectacular 19th and 20th century discoveries of christian texts in egypt dating to the second and third century have yielded a treasury of new information. that claim to record dialogues of jesus with his disciples, both before and after the resurrection. mary models the ideal disciple: she steps into the role of the savior at his departure, comforts, and instructs the other disciples. we can now hear the other side of the controversy over women's leadership and see what arguments were given in favor of it. she tells of the support and fellowship among the confessors in prison, including other women. for example, another new text, the hypostasis of the archons, contains a retelling of the genesis story ascribed to eve's daughter norea, in which her mother eve appears as the instructor of adam and his healer. if we look to these elements, we are able to discern important contributions of women to early christian theology and praxis. the vision is given in the form of a dialogue between the lord and mary; it is an extensive account that takes up seven out of the eighteen pages of the work. rise of isisfrontline reports from iraq on the miscalculations and mistakes behind the brutal rise of isis. euodia and syntyche are called his fellow-workers in the gospel (philippians 4:2-3). chief among these is mary magdalene, a woman infamous in western christianity as an adulteress and repentant whore. with judas (thomas) and matthew in the course of an extended dialogue with jesus. truths and cultures of secrecy: reflections on gender and ethnicity in the study of religion.

Women and violence essay

the woman was clearly considered expendable and of little value. as prophets, women's roles would have included not only ecstatic public speech, but preaching, teaching, leading prayer, and perhaps even performing the eucharist meal. gender is itself contested as a "natural" category in the face of the power of god's spirit at work in the community and the world. adair lummis presented at the annual meetings of the association for the sociology of religion philadelphia, august 2005. at the end of his discourse, he tells them, "i have given you authority over all things as children of light," and they go forth in joy to preach the gospel. mary models the ideal disciple: she steps into the role of the savior at his departure, comforts, and instructs the other disciples. she asks more questions than all the rest of the disciples together, and the savior acknowledges that: "your heart is directed to the kingdom of heaven more than all your brothers" (26:17-20). she has published widely in the areas of gnosticism, ancient christianity, and women's studies. this fiction was invented at least in part to undermine her influence and with it the appeal to her apostolic authority to support women in roles of leadership. this fiction was invented at least in part to undermine her influence and with it the appeal to her apostolic authority to support women in roles of leadership." the strength of this literary tradition makes it possible to suggest that historically mary was a prophetic visionary and leader within one sector of the early christian movement after the death of jesus. this letter also contains greetings to junia (female) and andronicus, who both have been "well-respected apostles before me. by the women and twentieth-century protestantism project of the institute for the study of evangelicalism. what is remarkable is how much evidence has survived systematic attempts to erase women from history, and with them the warrants and models for women's leadership. would assume this is telling men to beware of women and their influence. this gospel lets us hear an alternative voice to the one dominant in canonized works like i timothy, which tried to silence women and insist that their salvation lies in bearing children.

Short essay on women empowerment | Northwest Assistance

he spoke to women both in public and private, and indeed he learned from them. every variety of ancient christianity that advocated the legitimacy of women's leadership was eventually declared heretical, and evidence of women's early leadership roles was erased or suppressed. interpretations of the gods word under the disguise of organized religion are the product of the gender discrimination of the time and continue to paint women as lesser creatures in the eyes of god. jesus was a frequent visitor at the home of mary and martha, and was in the habit of teaching and eating meals with women as well as men. were also prominent as martyrs and suffered violently from torture and painful execution by wild animals and paid gladiators. the third century african bishop cyprian also tells of an ecstatic woman prophet from asia minor who celebrated the eucharist and performed baptisms (epistle 74. mary agrees and gives an account of "secret" teaching she received from the lord in a vision. in a situation where romans sought to use their violence against her body as a witness to their power and justice, and where the christian editor of her story sought to turn her death into a witness to the truth of christianity, her own writing lets us see the human being caught up in these political struggles. letters of paul - dated to the middle of the first century ce - and his casual greetings to acquaintances offer fascinating and solid information about many jewish and gentile women who were prominent in the movement. excellent essay on recent writings about the topic of women's ordination with a helpful bibliographic listing by the institute for the study of evangelicalism's women and twentieth-century protestantism project. elements may not be unique to women's religious thought or always result in women's leadership, but as a constellation they point toward one type of theologizing that was meaningful to some early christian women, that had a place for women's legitimate exercise of leadership, and to whose construction women contributed. from the beginning, jewish women disciples, including mary magdalene, joanna, and susanna, had accompanied jesus during his ministry and supported him out of their private means (luke 8:1-3). in it, she records her testimony before the local roman ruler and her defiance of her father's pleas that she recant. mary and persis are commended for their hard work (romans 16:6, 12). elements may not be unique to women's religious thought or always result in women's leadership, but as a constellation they point toward one type of theologizing that was meaningful to some early christian women, that had a place for women's legitimate exercise of leadership, and to whose construction women contributed. it overcomes the fragmentation of the self by naming it, cherishing it, insisting upon the multiplicity of self-hood and experience.

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/ pakistanbiographiesbusiness / economy / financialcriminal justiceeducationenvironmentfamily / childrenforeign affairs / defensegovernment / elections / politicshealth / science / technologyimmigrationiraq / war on terrormediarace / multiculturalreligionsocial issuessportsthe taliban hunters. of independent means, she accompanied jesus during his ministry and supported him out of her own resources (mark 15:40-41; matthew 27:55-56; luke 8:1-3; john 19:25). here again mary is included among those special disciples to whom jesus entrusted his most elevated teaching, and she takes a role in the preaching of the gospel. she was indeed an influential figure, but as a prominent disciple and leader of one wing of the early christian movement that promoted women's leadership. of these only five are named and speak, including mary. women held offices and played significant roles in group worship. the gospel of mary magdalene, the acts of paul and thecla, the prison diary of perpetua, and the poem "thunder, perfect mind. we can now hear the other side of the controversy over women's leadership and see what arguments were given in favor of it., gender, and context in an immigrant ministry: new spaces for the pastor's wife. as prophets, women's roles would have included not only ecstatic public speech, but preaching, teaching, leading prayer, and perhaps even performing the eucharist meal. they are equal in honor and grace; they are endowed with the same gifts and have the same responsibilities. / pakistanbiographiesbusiness / economy / financialcriminal justiceeducationenvironmentfamily / childrenforeign affairs / defensegovernment / elections / politicshealth / science / technologyimmigrationiraq / war on terrormediarace / multiculturalreligionsocial issuessportsthe taliban hunters. with judas (thomas) and matthew in the course of an extended dialogue with jesus. the actions of jesus christ, there seemed to be a break from the gender roles society had prescribed and more emphasis on equality between men and women. he spoke to women both in public and private, and indeed he learned from them. this prophet speaks powerfully to women, emphasizing the presence of women in her audience and insisting upon their identity with the feminine voice of the divine.

mary the apostle, prophet, and teacher had become mary the repentant whore. in genesis 19, the men of sodom gathered around lot's house, and asked that he bring his two guests out so that the men can "know" them. paul, for example, greets a deacon named phoebe (romans 16:1) and assumes that women are praying and prophesying during worship (i corinthians 11). as women historians entered the field in record numbers, they brought with them new questions, developed new methods, and sought for evidence of women's presence in neglected texts and exciting new findings. mary the apostle, prophet, and teacher had become mary the repentant whore. discoveries of new texts from the dry sands of egypt, along with sharpened critical insight, have now proven that this portrait of mary is entirely inaccurate. she is one of the seven women and twelve men gathered to hear the savior after the resurrection, but before his ascension. this practice is confirmed by other texts that also mention women who headed churches in their homes, such as lydia of thyatira (acts 16:15) and nympha of laodicea (colossians 4:15). at the end of his discourse, he tells them, "i have given you authority over all things as children of light," and they go forth in joy to preach the gospel. he greets prisca, junia, julia, and nereus' sister, who worked and traveled as missionaries in pairs with their husbands or brothers (romans 16:3, 7, 15). for this deed, lot is regarded as an honorable man and was saved when the city was destroyed. in fact, the earliest writing definitely by a woman is the prison diary of perpetua, a relatively wealthy matron and nursing mother who was put to death in carthage at the beginning of the third century on the charge of being a christian. other information about her is more fantastic, she is repeatedly portrayed as a visionary and leader of the early movement. while her teachings do not go unchallenged, in the end the gospel of mary affirms both the truth of her teachings and her authority to teach the male disciples. montanist christians ordained women as presbyters and bishops, and women held the title of prophet. the moral to these stories seem to be that women are responsible for the mistakes and men are easily corruptible by women.

ethics of freedom and spiritual development is emphasized over an ethics of order and control. in the gospel of john, the risen jesus gives her special teaching and commissions her as an apostle to the apostles to bring them the good news. the gospel of philip, mary magdalene is mentioned as one of three marys "who always walked with the lord" and as his companion (59. in fact, the earliest writing definitely by a woman is the prison diary of perpetua, a relatively wealthy matron and nursing mother who was put to death in carthage at the beginning of the third century on the charge of being a christian. romans 16 is a letter of recommendation, the earliest letter of recommendation for a christian minister, and it's written for a woman, phoebe." 3 and the catholic church opinion did not differ, as st. she actively relinquishes her female roles as mother, daughter, and sister in favor of defining her identity solely in spiritual terms. the work also says that lord loved her more than all the disciples, and used to kiss her often (63. these elements also provide an important location for discussing some aspects of early christian women's spiritual lives: their exercise of leadership, their ideals, their attraction to christianity, and what gave meaning to their self-identity as christians. the levite only learned of her death when he was leaving the house in the morning and stumbled across her body. king is professor of new testament studies and the history of ancient christianity at harvard university in the divinity school. he says of her and her male partner andronicus that they are "my kin and my fellow prisoners, prominent among the apostles and they were in christ before me., after jesus' resurrection, "mary magdalene and the other mary" receive the first apostolic commission of any human -- to tell the good news of the resurrection to the disciples. this practice is confirmed by other texts that also mention women who headed churches in their homes, such as lydia of thyatira (acts 16:15) and nympha of laodicea (colossians 4:15). this prophet speaks powerfully to women, emphasizing the presence of women in her audience and insisting upon their identity with the feminine voice of the divine. of these only five are named and speak, including mary.

Women and religion essay

" the revised standard version shows it as "they are men of note among the apostles. texts support these early portraits of women, both in exemplifying their prominence and confirming their leadership roles (acts 17:4, 12). she thus appears as a prominent member of the disciple group and is the only woman named. of independent means, she accompanied jesus during his ministry and supported him out of her own resources (mark 15:40-41; matthew 27:55-56; luke 8:1-3; john 19:25). in the gospel of john, the risen jesus gives her special teaching and commissions her as an apostle to the apostles to bring them the good news. he refused to follow the behavioral rules established by the three main jewish religious groups of the day: the essences, pharisees and sadducees. euodia and syntyche are called his fellow-workers in the gospel (philippians 4:2-3). experiences and reflexive spirituality in the formation of religious capital among feminist women. texts support these early portraits of women, both in exemplifying their prominence and confirming their leadership roles (acts 17:4, 12). the gospel of mary magdalene, the acts of paul and thecla, the prison diary of perpetua, and the poem "thunder, perfect mind. this is illogical, if lot was so drunk he probably could not have performed physically and it occurred over two separate nights. she thus appears as a prominent member of the disciple group and is the only woman named. when jesus was arrested, women remained firm, even when his male disciples are said to have fled, and they accompanied him to the foot of the cross. in reference to sexual relationships and all aspects of life. the work also says that lord loved her more than all the disciples, and used to kiss her often (63." concluding that women could not be apostles, textual editors and translators transformed junia into junias, a man.

rise of isisfrontline reports from iraq on the miscalculations and mistakes behind the brutal rise of isis. every variety of ancient christianity that advocated the legitimacy of women's leadership was eventually declared heretical, and evidence of women's early leadership roles was erased or suppressed. each daughter committed incest with her father, and became pregnant. in a situation where romans sought to use their violence against her body as a witness to their power and justice, and where the christian editor of her story sought to turn her death into a witness to the truth of christianity, her own writing lets us see the human being caught up in these political struggles. she draws a surprising new portrait of mary magdalene and outlines the stories of previously unknown early christian women. ethics of freedom and spiritual development is emphasized over an ethics of order and control. she enters into the lower world and the body in order to awaken the innermost spiritual being of the soul to the truth of its power and freedom, to awaken the spiritual power it needs to escape the counterfeit powers that enslave the soul in ignorance, poverty, and the drunken sleep of spiritual deadness, and to overcome illegitimate political and sexual domination., argues that women's ordination is one of the most significant recent developments in american religion. needs to be emphasized that the formal elimination of women from official roles of institutional leadership did not eliminate women's actual presence and importance to the christian tradition, although it certainly seriously damaged their capacity to contribute fully. mary and persis are commended for their hard work (romans 16:6, 12). once this initial, erroneous identification was secured, mary magdalene could be associated with every unnamed sinful woman in the gospels, including the adulteress in john 8:1-11 and the syro-phoenician woman with her five and more "husbands" in john 4:7-30. in the qur'an “your women are your ploughing ground; plough them at your will, plough as much as you desire, standing up, sitting down and or lying down, through the front or the rear” 12 the christian church recalls from the book, ephesians 5:22, “wives submit to your husbands”." concluding that women could not be apostles, textual editors and translators transformed junia into junias, a man. women's stories could be rewritten and alternative traditions could be invented. christian community, the unity, power, and perfection of the spirit are present now, not just in some future time. the new texts are therefore crucial in constructing a fuller and more accurate portrait.

other women were ordained as priests in fifth century italy and sicily (gelasius, epistle 14. for example, only a few names of women were widely known: mary, the mother of jesus; mary magdalene, his disciple and the first witness to the. is possible the deceitful ways of women were brought about by the treatment women typically received in scripture and society. clergywoman of the new generation: evolving interpretations of gender and faith. by placing the teaching of the gospel of mary side-by-side with the theology of the corinthian women prophets, the montanist women's oracles, thunder perfect mind, and perpetua's prison diary, it is possible to discern shared views about teaching and practice that may exemplify some of the contents of women's theology:Jesus was understood primarily as a teacher and mediator of wisdom rather than as ruler and judge. it overcomes the fragmentation of the self by naming it, cherishing it, insisting upon the multiplicity of self-hood and experience.: Religion Religious Females Gender Essays; Title: The Role of Women in ReligionArticles on women and religion. she is portrayed as a prophetic visionary and as a leader among the disciples. the african church father tertullian, for example, describes an unnamed woman prophet in his congregation who not only had ecstatic visions during church services, but who also served as a counselor and healer (on the soul 9. that claim to record dialogues of jesus with his disciples, both before and after the resurrection. of works by and about women is making it possible to begin to reconstruct some of the theological views of early christian women. for example, another new text, the hypostasis of the archons, contains a retelling of the genesis story ascribed to eve's daughter norea, in which her mother eve appears as the instructor of adam and his healer. the third century african bishop cyprian also tells of an ecstatic woman prophet from asia minor who celebrated the eucharist and performed baptisms (epistle 74.' " 10 and "luke expresses by this arrangement that man and woman stand together and side by side before god. she has published widely in the areas of gnosticism, ancient christianity, and women's studies. 1 kings 11 describes how solomon's many foreign wives and concubines convinced him to worship other gods and build pagan temples.

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