Sigmund Freud's views on homosexuality - Wikipediapsychology of women: a handbook of issues and theories (2nd ed. 1938, after freud was interrogated by the nazi gestapo in vienna, the family emigrated to england. although i liked the assignment of "economic" as a factor in, or part of understanding, freud's theory, it only confuses the matter when included in a discussion of a general model. the final, adaptive level is never formally addressed by freud, but involves how the psyche is able to relate the first four levels to the external world. in freud's day, it seems likely that most people did in fact grow up in a two-parent family. freud followed in her father's footsteps and became a reputable and influential expert in her own right. female sexuality, according to early freudian theory, is exactly the same as male sexuality up until the phallic stage of psychosexual development; since women don’t have a penis, however, they experience penis envy, which is the jealousy little girls feel towards boys and the resentment towards their mothers (whom they blame for not having a penis). the author believes that freud's sexism was a direct result of the time period's cultural bias against women and the fact that freud himself was male. he begins with the five basic contributions from freud's psychoanalytic movement, divided into the dynamic, economic, developmental, structural, and adaptive realms. home to personality papers home to great ideas in personality. in 1922, she delivered her first paper to the vienna psychoanalytic society and soon afterwards was accepted as a member. her father hoped that psychoanalysis would cure her lesbianism, but in freud's view, the prognosis was unfavourable because of the circumstances under which the woman entered therapy, and because the homosexuality was not an illness or neurotic conflict. ernest jones and princess marie bonaparte provided vital assistance in obtaining emigration papers but it was anna above all who had to deal with the nazi bureaucracy and organize the practicalities of the family’s emigration to london. despite his many important and influential contributions to psychology, there are many criticisms of his theories. as the last link to the origins of psychoanalysis, she embraced her father's ideas while forging her own theories of normal and abnormal child development and psychology and creating a coherent therapeutic technique. again, i offer this same argument to the criticisms of freud's data. anna completed her education at the cottage lyceum in vienna in 1912, she had not yet decided upon a career.
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Anna Freud Facts in psychology: a bio-bibliographical source book, edited by agnes n. 1947 anna freud and kate friedlaender established the hampstead child therapy courses, and a children’s clinic was added five years later. freud (1953b) saw dreams (and dream analysis) as the central window
to the unconscious (see the section on treatment). by the early 1930s, however, opposition to freud's ideas was growing among extremists in the nazi party in germany, and in 1933 his books were burned in berlin. freud's (1895-1982) pioneering efforts in establishing the theory and method of child psycho analysis expanded the legacy of her father, sigmund freud, while it applied psychoanalytic discoveries to practical problems of child care and development in her innovative child care and study centers. second, freud's use of free association and dream interpretation in
treatment have been heavily criticized by many reviewers. freud wrote that changing homosexuality was difficult and therefore possible only under unusually favourable conditions, observing that "in general to undertake to convert a fully developed homosexual into a heterosexual does not offer much more prospect of success than the reverse.
as for the criticism of freud's (over-) use of free association and dream
analysis, i simply disagree. she began a lifetime of work focused on child psychology, saying once: "i don’t think i’d be a good subject for biography—not enough ‘action'! this article appropriately
begins with the freudian contributions to the field of psychoanalysis. plaut
this paper first summarizes the central theory of psychoanalysis, beginning with
freud's groundbreaking contributions divided into five parts: dynamic, economic,
developmental, structural, and adaptive. akhmatovaanna botsford comstockanna comnenaanna ella carrollanna freudanna howard shawanna hyatt huntingtonanna ivanovnaanna may wonganna nzinga. anna freud had already established a new practice and was lecturing on child psychology in english. it focuses on
the formation of the sense of self as an issue independent of freud's structural
concepts (kohut, 1971). freud (1964) saw the unresolved oedipal
complex as the most universal, as well as most important, repression (in males). modern medical professional organizations share freud's opinion that attempts to change sexual orientation are not helpful, they also do not find that a sort of arrested development explains homosexuality or that interpersonal relationships are what determine sexual orientation. it then moves on to more recent
developments within the freudian framework.
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Freud | Psychological History of Women these criticisms include the entire list of
qualms grünbaum has with freud's theory, and other, more general and often
it is true that freud essentially considered psychoanalysis a pure science, but
that is a view which has been superseded by the current view, which puts more
emphasis on the issue of how fruitful psychoanalytic treatment is as a treatment.
the dynamic level of freud's theory involves the interplay between the two main
alleged human instincts--the libido or sexual instinct, and the destructive or
aggressive instinct. freud's
auxiliary electra hypothesis seems little more than an attempt to cover up an obvious
flaw in the overall psychoanalytic theory.
an analysis on the analysis of the evolution of freudian
paula s. his early theories, freud simply extended his views of male sexuality to women, viewing women as simply men without penises (cohler & galatzer-levy, 2008). freud (1964) attributed the severity of the superego to the strength of
defense used against the temptation of the oedipus complex (and used this to claim
that men have more fully developed superegos--but that is a more complex matter that
is more fully dealt with in the sections of this paper on criticisms). the interpretation of dreams, the standard edition of the
complete psychological works of sigmund freud (vol." this collective unconscious is considered to be present in
all people, but is different from freud's in that it is not created by repression. he also fell prey to the general sexism of the time, writing that in men alone is “the sexual life…accessible to investigation, whereas in the woman it is veiled in impenetrable darkness, partly in consequence of cultural stunting and partly on account of the conventional reticence and dishonesty of women” (freud, 1905). this, in my opinion, is by far the greatest
achievement of freud and his theory.
evaluating the criticisms of freud's theory of
kristen m. however, he knew and conceded that his theory was less well developed
for women; he saw but could not correct this flaw (freud,1953a), as noted in the
section on treatment." this is simply something with which freud did not agree. his model of development
is four stages long, and only lasts through early life (other more complex models
that give detailed representations of adulthood have been proposed by others;
erickson's will be addressed later in the section of this paper devoted to
developments within the freudian framework). popkins
the paper "psychoanalysis: from theory to practice, past to present," discusses
freud's most famous (or infamous) contribution to psychology, psychoanalysis. the outbreak of war anna set up the hampstead war nursery, which provided foster care for over eighty children.
Anna Freud | Jewish Women's Archive" child analysis, freud concluded, aims to strike a balance between freeing and restricting the child's impulses in the process of educating them. this is inherent in freud's theory, which concentrates a great deal on the relationship between mother and son. karen horney, a psychoanalyst who broke away from freudian theory, criticized his work, particularly his theory of penis envy. kohut currently a variant on this called "self psychology" is receiving a lot of attention. his theories changed the field of psychology and remain influential even today. the supporters of psychoanalysis added more information and concepts that freud was unable to achieve and thereby made his theory more palatable as a science. the early sexologists, freud believed that women were sexually passive, engaging in sex only because they want children. freud also believed dream analysis to be a method of tapping into the unconscious. plaut next addresses the developments in the field of psychoanalysis since freud. anna freud and her lifelong friend, dorothy burlingham, were concerned by the situation of the poor and involved themselves in charitable initiatives. she began a lifetime of work focused on child psychology, saying once: "i don’t think i’d be a good subject for biography—not enough ‘action'! an outline of psychoanalysis, the standard edition of the complete psychological works of sigmund freud (vol. the structural level of freudian theory divides into structural and topographical models. in england, freud went back to seeing patients and founded a nursery at her family's house for children who had been separated from their parents by the war. at the clinic, anna and her staff held highly acclaimed weekly case-study sessions which provided practical and theoretical insights into their work. however, even most modern freudians would concede that freud's emphasis on the oedipal complex was excessive. for the next 40 years, freud served as a training analyst, supervisor, and consultant to the clinic while speaking internationally and publishing on a wide variety of subjects.
Psychoanalysis: From Theory to Practice, Past to Present, janet, mothers of psychoanalysis: helene deutch, karen horney, anna freud, and melanie klein, norton, 1991. plaut covers most every aspect of psychoanalysis, dealing especially skillfully with the major criticisms of freud's theory. freud's theory dynamic the "dynamic" level of freud's (1964) theory deals with instinctual forces (rapaport & gill, 1959). many argue that because freud's theory has been around for so long, and is so widely accepted, that it must be at least mostly true. freud believed that humans are born with unfocused sexual libidinal drives, and therefore argued that homosexuality might be a deviation from this. freud never acquired advanced academic degrees, her accomplishments were widely recognized in the many honorary degrees awarded her in england, europe, and the united states. although plaut does admit to the one-sidedness of the freudian model, he also mentions the bias of the day, which excluded women in general. second, i will note that dream analysis is generally not as central to modern therapy as it was in freud's day. early september 1939 war broke out and within a few weeks sigmund freud died. freud concluded that he was probably dealing with a case of biologically innate homosexuality, and eventually broke off the treatment because of what he saw as his patient's hostility to men. the other main technique in freudian analysis is the use of free association, in which patients essentially speak what is on their minds, "associating" one topic with the next. in the resulting books, freud argued that the child's perspective must be paramount in determining child care decisions and that the "least detrimental alternative" should be pursued that will allow the child to maintain a stable parental relationship. kohut moved away from freudian concepts and focused on individual attainment of sense of self. also, children with no siblings, or with only same sex siblings, have a fairly low chance of seeing a member of the opposite sex's genitalia at a young age, another event that is central to freud's ideas concerning sexual development. i would concede this if it is applied to freud alone, but modern analysis has greatly changed many things. after anna's arrival in london, the conflict between their respective approaches threatened to split the british psycho-analytical society. plaut should also bring forth any sociological critiques of freud's theory and then effectively refute those.
Health and Medicine: Mental Health:Manuscript Divisionfreud held, however, that analysis of children must make allowances for children's unique developmental stages and fluid individuality. freud wrote to his friend wilhelm fliess in 1899: “anna has become downright beautiful through naughtiness. the author then succinctly details the additions and developments of other top psychologists within the freudian framework. next, he brings forth the criticisms freudian theory has received and makes an effort to refute them. after all, freud and his theories have been criticized on almost every level, yet i think the controversiality of his theory is perhaps its greatest strength. economic freud's (1964) theory of the instincts is further realized in the "economic" level of his theory (rapaport & gill, 1959). plaut includes a wide variety of material that has been further researched or elaborated upon since freud's time. developments within the freudian framework there have been many developments within the freudian framework. furthermore, he states that a possible overload on sex does not lessen freud's theory. one final criticism, which is often stated, is that freud's work (and/or freud himself) was sexist. i found the section that further discussed freud's model of the treatment of psychoses according to psychoanalysis to contain uncited material. the first is that people misinterpret freud's use of the word "sexual. another problem with freud's theory is that a cure make take years (and thousands of dollars) to arrive at. developmental the third part of freud's (1964) theory is the "developmental" (rapaport & gill, 1959). when asked about her views on the subject of mothering, freud replied that she had never written of mother-daughter relations because she knew nothing about them. in addition, a more comprehensive explanation of the relationship of the oedipus complex and the superego is needed, possibly in the discussion of the structural level of freud's psychoanalytic model. second, a distinction between 'sexual' and 'genital' has to be made, because the former is a broader term encompassing many things totally disconnected from the genitals, for example oral and anal pleasure (freud, 1964).
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Anna Freud two of anna's mentors in child psychology, siegfried bernfeld and august aichhorn, had both had practical experience of dealing with children. london: 1968; research at the hampstead child-therapy clinic and other papers, 1956–1965. it’s interesting to note that despite working with both female patients and psychoanalysts, including his daughter anna, freud’s theories on female sexuality remained restricted and male-centered. freud argued instead that a wide range of behavior could be considered "normal" and relied, more heavily than her counterparts, on direct observation and on the clues provided by children's drawings, play, and daydreams. in the developmental level, freud
identifies an oral phase that begins with the infant sucking at the mother's breast.]) freud's theory holds that males,
around the age of three or four, enter into sexual fantasies about their mothers,
including fantasies about taking their fathers' places. this is definitely one of the important
things that has resulted from freud's work and that of his followers, but it is silly
to me and offensive to analysts to give no importance to all of the patients who have
been helped by the therapy. the ego and the mechanisms of defense, the writings of
anna freud (vol. freud believed that all humans were bisexual, by which he primarily meant that everyone incorporates aspects of both sexes, and that everyone is sexually attracted to both sexes. in 1986 her home for forty years was, as she had wished, transformed into the freud museum. freud, the youngest of sigmund freud's six children and the only one who became a psychoanalyst, was born in vienna in 1895."
although plaut mentions the oedipus complex throughout the paper, he fails to
clarify what its correct resolution entails. with her practical focus and humanistic outlook, freud played a major part in maintaining unity among british psychoanalysts who often held widely differing points of view." freud included in the
concept "sexual" the genital, the anal, and the oral (freud, 1964). one such friend was the writer and psychoanalyst lou andreas-salomé, who was once the confidante of nietzsche and rilke and who was to become anna freud’s confidante in the 1920s. freud (1896 – 1982) was the youngest daughter of sigmund freud, "the father of psychoanalysis. in addition, freud believed an unresolved
oedipus complex to be a common type of repression occurring in males, having resulted
from castration anxiety.
Sigmund Freud's views on homosexuality - Wikipedia Teen wont use agenda for homework
Freud and the Seduction Theory - The Atlantic1922 anna freud presented her paper “beating fantasies and daydreams” to the vienna psychoanalytical society and became a member of the society. second, tasker criticizes the use of the word "economic" in reference to the divisions of freud's theory used here. freud, grafenberg, and the neglected vagina: thoughts concerning an historical omission in sexology., anna, writings of anna freud [8 volumes], international universities press, 1964-1980. in child analyses anna felt that it was above all transference symptoms that offered the “royal road to the unconscious. additionally freud himself weakened this argument considerably later in life (grünbaum, 1986). to the criticism that freud's theory is too simple, plaut defends that like any other model, simplification is necessary for comprehension. although the omission of the criticisms of freud's evidence and technique is significant, i believe that the article presents freud's psychoanalytic theory and its notable criticisms quite adequately. however, i believe that parts of freudian theory are too generalized and fail to leave adequate room for exceptions to the general rule. this does not make freud's psychoanalysis wrong necessarily, but inconvenient at best. the second section of this article, beginning under "developments within the freudian framework," is well written and provides an overview of the theorists who further developed psychoanalysis, including freud's daughter, a. austria was taken over by the germans, and the freuds had to flee, regardless of sigmund freud’s ill health. the elder freud later praised her intellectual interests, but he did not send her to schools that could prepare her for university. on december 3, 1895, anna was the youngest of sigmund and martha (née bernays) freud’s six children. freud (1896 – 1982) entered the field of psychoanalysis as a young woman, when her father began psychoanalyzing her. her father, freud believed that analysis was essentially a talking cure, and children could not therefore be analyzed until they could talk. i agree with the author's position that freud's theories have been beneficial in treatment and understanding people.
Texas workforce commission resume, freud's theory was sexually unbalanced--there is no way of denying it. erikson erikson made an enormous contribution to and alteration of freud's developmental theory. for a general paper of this length on psychoanalysis as a whole, i think he has been properly addressed. through her the freuds also met rilke, whose poetry anna freud greatly admired. 1920, anna freud (1896 – 1982) attended her first conference in the field she had entered two years earlier. the obvious explanations for this inability are time-period cultural bias and the simple fact that freud was male. three essays on sexuality, the standard edition of the complete psychological works of sigmund freud (vol. freud suffered a stroke in 1982 and died later that year. in 1910 anna had begun reading her father’s work, but her serious involvement in psychoanalysis began in 1918, when her father started psychoanalyzing her. structural the fourth point of freud's (1964) theory, the all-important "structural" divisions, come under two main categories: the structural and the topographical models (rapaport & gill, 1959). the hampstead wartime nursery for homeless children provided a natural laboratory for freud's views on the influence of parental separation on childhood development. grünbaum takes eysenck's argument one step further to claim that freud's theories are scientific but have been proven wrong and are simply bad science. 1935, freud wrote to a mother who had asked him to treat her son's homosexuality, a letter that would later become famous:. period from the mid-1920s to 1938, when the freuds were forced by the nazi occupation of austria to leave vienna, was a period of rich intellectual activity and rapid development in psychoanalytic thought. the dividing line between freud and erikson is not drawn for two reasons. second, extremely little is said about kohut, the least of which is how kohut was influenced by psychoanalytic theory in order to expand upon it and create his "self psychology. first, many critics of freud's evidence contend that freud's theory lacks empirical data and relies too much on therapeutic achievements, whereas others maintain that even freud's clinical data are flawed and inaccurate. The girls in their summer dresses essay - the 1950s until the end of her life anna freud traveled regularly to the united states to lecture, to teach and to visit friends. like the process of modeling anything, it is difficult to draw the line of oversimplification, but freud's theory and models are practical in understanding people and have been fruitful in treatment. one cannot say that he made developments within the freudian framework, but he founded the only other school of analysis that has maintained a significant following. adaptive the last element of freudian theory is the "adaptive," which has been given much greater emphasis by more modern analysis (rapaport & gill, 1959). plaut asserts that freud's theory is simply a model, whose sole purpose is to simplify something incredibly complex to a point where it can be analyzed. in 1923, he was diagnosed with cancer and from then on freud became his primary caretaker, secretary, and intellectual companion. plaut cleverly points out that freud himself acknowledged that his theory was less developed for women. i found the outline of freud's concepts to be a very inclusive summary. 1914, freud was visiting england when world war i broke out. the second main criticism of psychoanalysis, according to the author, is that freud's theory is sexist and places too much emphasis on sex in general. second, even kohut's stages, which essentially correspond to freud's, are a bit different, so it would be a bit of an oversimplification to say that those stages are the same, but that the later ones are new. the point at which erikson's and freud's correlating stages end and erikson's expansion of stages is not clear. freud (1896 – 1982) entered the field of psychoanalysis as a young woman, when her father began psychoanalyzing her. in examining ego functions, the book was a move away from the traditional bases of psychoanalytical thought; rather than drives, it became a founding work of ego psychology and established anna’s reputation as a pioneering theoretician. 1923 sigmund freud began suffering from cancer and became increasingly dependent on anna's care and nursing. throughout her career, freud continued to stress that child care and analysis itself cannot substitute for the early parental attachments which shape personality development. mothering psychoanalysis: helene deutsch, karen horney, anna freud and melanie klein..
lastly, freudian technique also includes the use of free association between patient and therapist. freud (1896 – 1982) was the youngest daughter of sigmund freud, "the father of psychoanalysis. anna and dorothy, who ran the school, were able to observe infant behavior and to experiment with feeding patterns. freud's self analysis was an important input into his theories. she became immersed in the development of psychoanalysis and began attending psychoanalytic meetings, translating papers, and analyzing patients. she differed from anna freud as to the timing of the development of object relations and internalized structures; also she put the oedipal stage much earlier, and considered the death drive to be of fundamental importance in infancy." this school of thought puts far greater emphasis than freud on interpersonal relationships, beginning with the mother-child relationship. freud, therefore, told the parents only that he was prepared to study their daughter to determine what effects therapy might have. in light of this, another legitimate response to criticisms about the role of sexuality in the theory would be to concede that freud's emphasis was excessive, but that that in itself does not really have any effect on the theory as a whole. the resolution of the oedipal complex can only come about through psychoanalysis, at least according to freud, and entails the patient's realizing and admitting the feelings and fantasies to him- or herself. in two books and a series of reports collected as infants without families, freud and burlingham, who also had become an analyst, outlined a program of service and research to prevent further harm to the children, conduct research on the fundamental needs of children, and develop an ideal nursery environment that could provide a model for peacetime education. another major problem with freud's psychoanalysis is that it fails to take into account the large number of people who do not grow up in the atmosphere freud asserts is necessary for healthy psychological development. to the criticism that freud overemphasized sex, he explains that freud's use of the word "sexual" really encompassed the genital, anal, and oral. freud continued her collaborations with pediatricians, social workers, and teachers, combining models of service to children with rigorous scientific investigation. erikson slightly modified and extended freud's stages of development to include adult life. plaut then discusses the criticism that freudian theory is sexist, ignoring females. freud also refers in her work to a notion that w.
popper insists that freud's theories cannot be falsified and therefore are not scientific, whereas eysenck claims that freudian theories can be falsified and therefore are scientific. when her rival married in 1913, anna wrote to her father “i am glad that sophie is getting married, because the unending quarrel between us was horrible for me. freud stated that steinach's research had "thrown a strong light on the organic determinants of homoeroticism", but cautioned that it was premature to expect that the operations he performed would make possible a therapy that could be generally applied.'s main discussion of female homosexuality was the 1920 paper "the psychogenesis of a case of homosexuality in a woman," which described his analysis of a young woman who had entered therapy because her parents were concerned that she was a lesbian. freud's mother was more attached to the other children, however, and the youngest daughter seems to have envied her beautiful older sister sophie. freud addressed it, but only in a fairly scattered way. after a group of orphans from the theresienstadt ghetto came into the care of anna freud’s colleagues at the bulldogs bank home, she wrote about the children's ability to find substitute affections among their peers, in an experiment in group upbringing. freud should not be credited with something associated with the term "electra complex/hypothesis. in the same year, sigmund freud published studies on hysteria, regarded as the first work of what would come to be known as psychoanalysis. though freud didn’t propose the “electra complex,” it can be inferred from his theories that little girls switch their affections from their mother to their father in an attempt to “gain” a penis. plaut does a fine job of being comprehensive, as well as concise, in explaining the five foundations underlying freudian psychoanalytic theory. “the hampstead clinic is sometimes spoken of as anna freud’s extended family, and that is how it often felt, with all the ambivalence such a statement implies,” one of her staff wrote. although i agree that the criticisms mentioned by the author are noteworthy, i believe that the many criticisms of freud's evidence and technique must not be overlooked in the evaluation of his theory. first, freud's stages are discussed earlier in the paper, so the differences are somewhat apparent. the early 1960s, freud began a collaboration with the yale child study center, contributing to seminars on family law and child placement conflicts. penis envy in women is a problem that freud believed could never be completely resolved, thus condemning all women to underdeveloped superegos, implying that women will always be morally inferior to men, who are capable of having fully developed superegos (schultz & schultz, 2009). according to plaut, these researchers expanded freud's ideas and made them more accepted--an idea with which i agree. Thesis on iso 9001- elder freud defended his daughter against the differing views of melanie klein and others and came to admire her intellectual independence.: sigmund freud's viewsfreudian psychologyconversion therapyviews on homosexualityhidden categories: all articles with unsourced statementsarticles with unsourced statements from september 2015. the author's accurate assessment of the criticisms of freudian psychoanalytic theory demonstrates his clear knowledge of the principles upon which psychoanalysis was founded. anna’s literary interests paved the way for her future career. on the issue of sexual inadequacies in the theory, plaut even admits that freud's theory is less applicable to women than to men. anything not cited was simply an overview on my part, and i apologize, but i cannot find what tasker refers to in the paper. from 1927 to 1934 anna freud was general secretary of the international psychoanalytical association. this is because they are arguments about psychoanalysis as a science, and i have conceded in my paper that it is by no means completely scientific in the sense in which these criticisms would be relevant. as a direct result of freud's theory, additional psychological theories and hypotheses have been developed that otherwise may have been missed. freud's views on homosexuality have been described as deterministic, whereas he would ascribe biological and psychological factors in explaining the principal causes of homosexuality. (1959) the points of view and assumptions of metapsychology, the collected papers of david rapaport (ed. freud's first patients were adults, but she soon began treating children. freud (1953a) saw dreams as the major source of insight into the unconscious. each one of the two people in the psychoanalytic relationship, hopefully, will eventually meet at the same conclusion as to the cause of the problem (freud, 1964). anna freud elaborated on the role of the ego and its use of defense mechanisms (e. for someone whose theories are centered on sex, freud seemed content to remain willfully ignorant of female sexuality and how it may differ from male sexuality. in a memorial issue of the international journal of psycho-analysis, collaborators at the hampstead clinic paid tribute to her as a passionate and inspirational teacher, and the clinic was renamed the anna freud centre.